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BTrees 4.4.1

Scalable persistent object containers

Package Documentation

BTrees: scalable persistent components

This package contains a set of persistent object containers built around a modified BTree data structure. The trees are optimized for use inside ZODB’s “optimistic concurrency” paradigm, and include explicit resolution of conflicts detected by that mechanism.

Please see the Sphinx documentation for further information.

BTrees Changelog

4.4.1 (2017-01-24)

Fixed a packaging bug that caused extra files to be included (some of which caused problems in some platforms).

4.4.0 (2017-01-11)

  • Allow None as a special key (sorted smaller than all others).

    This is a bit of a return to BTrees 3 behavior in that Nones are allowed as keys again. Other objects with default ordering are still not allowed as keys.

4.3.2 (2017-01-05)

  • Make the CPython implementation consistent with the pure-Python implementation and only check object keys for default comparison when setting keys. In Python 2 this makes it possible to remove keys that were added using a less restrictive version of BTrees. (In Python 3 keys that are unorderable still cannot be removed.) Likewise, all versions can unpickle trees that already had such keys. See: and

  • Make the Python implementation consistent with the CPython implementation and check object key identity before checking equality and performing comparisons. This can allow fixing trees that have keys that now have broken comparison functions. See

  • Make the CPython implementation consistent with the pure-Python implementation and no longer raise TypeError for an object key (in object-keyed trees) with default comparison on __getitem__, get or in operations. Instead, the results will be a KeyError, the default value, and False, respectively. Previously, CPython raised a TypeError in those cases, while the Python implementation behaved as specified.

    Likewise, non-integer keys in integer-keyed trees will raise KeyError, return the default and return False, respectively, in both implementations. Previously, pure-Python raised a KeyError, returned the default, and raised a TypeError, while CPython raised TypeError in all three cases.

4.3.1 (2016-05-16)

  • Packaging: fix password used to automate wheel creation on Travis.

4.3.0 (2016-05-10)

  • Fix unexpected OverflowError when passing 64bit values to long keys / values on Win64. See:
  • When testing PURE_PYTHON environments under tox, avoid poisoning the user’s global wheel cache.
  • Ensure that the pure-Python implementation, used on PyPy and when a C compiler isn’t available for CPython, pickles identically to the C version. Unpickling will choose the best available implementation. This change prevents interoperability problems and database corruption if both implementations are in use. While it is no longer possible to pickle a Python implementation and have it unpickle to the Python implementation if the C implementation is available, existing Python pickles will still unpickle to the Python implementation (until pickled again). See:
  • Avoid creating invalid objects when unpickling empty BTrees in a pure-Python environment.
  • Drop support for Python 2.6 and 3.2.

4.2.0 (2015-11-13)

  • Add support for Python 3.5.

4.1.4 (2015-06-02)

  • Ensure that pure-Python Bucket and Set objects have a human readable __repr__ like the C versions.

4.1.3 (2015-05-19)

4.1.2 (2015-04-07)

4.1.1 (2014-12-27)

  • Accomodate long values in pure-Python OLBTrees.

4.1.0 (2014-12-26)

  • Add support for PyPy and PyPy3.
  • Add support for Python 3.4.
  • BTree subclasses can define max_leaf_size or max_internal_size to control maximum sizes for Bucket/Set and BTree/TreeSet nodes.
  • Detect integer overflow on 32-bit machines correctly under Python 3.
  • Update pure-Python and C trees / sets to accept explicit None to indicate max / min value for minKey, maxKey. (PR #3)
  • Update pure-Python trees / sets to accept explicit None to indicate open ranges for keys, values, items. (PR #3)

4.0.8 (2013-05-25)

  • Fix value-based comparison for objects under Py3k: addresses invalid merges of [OLI]OBTrees/OBuckets.
  • Ensure that pure-Python implementation of OOBTree.byValue matches semantics (reversed-sort) of C implementation.

4.0.7 (2013-05-22)

  • Issue #2: compilation error on 32-bit mode of OS/X.
  • Test PURE_PYTHON environment variable support: if set, the C extensions will not be built, imported, or tested.

4.0.6 (2013-05-14)

  • Changed the ZODB extra to require only the real ZODB package, rather than the ZODB3 metapackage: depending on the version used, the metapackage could pull in stale versions of this package and persistent.
  • Fixed Python version check in

4.0.5 (2013-01-15)

  • Fit the repr of bucket objects, which could contain garbage characters.

4.0.4 (2013-01-12)

  • Emulate the (private) iterators used by the C extension modules from pure Python. This change is “cosmetic” only: it prevents the ZCML from failing. The emulated classes are not functional, and should be considered implementation details.
  • Accomodate buildout to the fact that we no longer bundle a copy of ‘persistent.h’.
  • Fix test failures on Windows: no longer rely on overflows from sys.maxint.

4.0.3 (2013-01-04)

  • Added setup_requires==['persistent'].

4.0.2 (2013-01-03)

  • Updated Trove classifiers.
  • Added explicit support for Python 3.2, Python 3.3, and PyPy. Note that the C extensions are not (yet) available on PyPy.
  • Python reference implementations now tested separately from the C verions on all platforms.
  • 100% unit test coverage.

4.0.1 (2012-10-21)

  • Provide local fallback for persistent C header inclusion if the persistent distribution isn’t installed. This makes the winbot happy.

4.0.0 (2012-10-20)

Platform Changes

  • Dropped support for Python < 2.6.
  • Factored BTrees as a separate distribution.

Testing Changes

  • All covered platforms tested under tox.
  • Added support for continuous integration using tox and jenkins.
  • Added dev alias (installs nose and coverage).
  • Dropped dependency on zope.testing / zope.testrunner: tests now run with test.

Documentation Changes

  • Added API reference, generated via Spinx’ autodoc.
  • Added Sphinx documentation based on ZODB Guide (snippets are exercised via ‘tox’).
  • Added docs alias (installs Sphinx and repoze.sphinx.autointerface).
File Type Py Version Uploaded on Size
BTrees-4.4.1-cp27-cp27m-macosx_10_11_x86_64.whl (md5) Python Wheel cp27 2017-01-25 489KB
BTrees-4.4.1-cp34-cp34m-macosx_10_6_intel.whl (md5) Python Wheel cp34 2017-01-25 795KB
BTrees-4.4.1-cp36-cp36m-macosx_10_11_x86_64.whl (md5) Python Wheel cp36 2017-01-25 491KB
BTrees-4.4.1-py2.7-win-amd64.egg (md5) Python Egg 2.7 2017-01-25 622KB
BTrees-4.4.1-py2.7-win32.egg (md5) Python Egg 2.7 2017-01-25 568KB
BTrees-4.4.1-py3.3-win-amd64.egg (md5) Python Egg 3.3 2017-02-15 649KB
BTrees-4.4.1-py3.3-win32.egg (md5) Python Egg 3.3 2017-02-15 597KB
BTrees-4.4.1-py3.4-win-amd64.egg (md5) Python Egg 3.4 2017-01-25 641KB
BTrees-4.4.1-py3.4-win32.egg (md5) Python Egg 3.4 2017-01-25 590KB
BTrees-4.4.1.tar.gz (md5) Source 2017-01-24 162KB (md5) MS Windows installer 2.7 2017-01-25 706KB (md5) MS Windows installer 3.3 2017-02-15 711KB (md5) MS Windows installer 3.4 2017-01-25 710KB
BTrees-4.4.1.win32-py2.7.exe (md5) MS Windows installer 2.7 2017-01-25 625KB
BTrees-4.4.1.win32-py3.3.exe (md5) MS Windows installer 3.3 2017-02-15 628KB
BTrees-4.4.1.win32-py3.4.exe (md5) MS Windows installer 3.4 2017-01-25 628KB