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batou 1.3.1

A utility for automating multi-host, multi-environment software builds and deployments.

Package Documentation


batou helps you to automate your application deployments:

  • You create a model of your deployment using a simple but powerful Python API.
  • You configure how the model applies to hosts in different environments.
  • You verify and run the deployment with the batou utility.

Getting started with a new project is easy:

$ mkdir myproject
$ cd myproject
$ curl -o batou
$ chmod +x batou
$ ./batou

Here’s a minimal application model:

$ mkdir -p components/myapp
$ cat > components/myapp/
from batou.component import Component
from batou.lib.python import VirtualEnv, Package
from batou.lib.supervisor import Program

class MyApp(Component):

    def configure(self):
        venv = VirtualEnv('2.7')
        self += venv
        venv += Package('myapp')
        self += Program('myapp',

And here’s a minimal environment:

$ mkdir environments
$ cat > environments/dev.cfg
connect_method = local

localhost = myapp

To deploy this, you run:

$ ./batou deploy dev

Check the detailed documentation to get going with a more ambitious project.


  • Separate your application model from environments
  • Supports idempotent operation for incremental deployments
  • Deploy to multiple hosts simultaneously
  • Automated dependency resolution for multi-host scenarios
  • No runtime requirements on your application
  • Encrypted secrets with multiple access levels: store your SSL certificates, SSH keys, service secrets and more to get true 1-button deployments.
  • Deploy to local machines, Vagrant, or any SSH host
  • Broad SSH feature support by using OpenSSH through execnet
  • Only few dependencies required on the remote host
  • Ships with a library of components for regularly needed tasks
  • self-bootstrapping and self-updating - no additional scripting needed


If you are having issues, please let us know. We’re around on IRC in #batou on freenode.


The project is licensed under the 2-clause BSD license.


1.3.1 (2016-10-13)

  • Bug fix: Don’t update virtualenv on each run. (#23983)

1.3.0 (2016-09-12)

  • Update virtualenv when the Python version changes (#22805)
  • Remove support for virtualenv with Python 2.4, 2.5 and 3.2.
  • Add way to set arbitrary environment variables in crontab.
  • Fix performance issue with git and mercurial Clone components.

1.3b3 (2016-05-30)

  • Fix a crash in case of GnuPG2 is not installed at all.

1.3b2 (2016-05-27)

  • Parallelize connect to remote hosts and bootstrapping of remote batou via ./batou deploy.
  • Support remote host/port for MySQL commands.
  • Copy virtualenv files instead of symlinking (for Python 2.7 and up). Symlinking breaks especially on NixOS since the symlinks point directly to the store.
  • Hide passwords from output of the Download component.
  • Add dependencies to supervisor.Program.
  • Fix disconnect error in consistency check.
  • Support gpg2.
  • Download virtualenv via PIP. This fixes an error caused by the PyPI restructuring

1.3b1 (2016-03-09)

  • Provided extended prediction support for deployments. In addition to -c which checks internal consistency of the configuration model you can pass -P which causes verification to be run and predict which changes will be applied when deploying.
  • Enhance support for multi-line members in secret files: order them and indent them automatically. (#13040)

1.2 (2016-01-29)

  • Change default of supervisor PID file path to ensure it does something useful out of the box.

    It’s still a good idea to place it on a temporary filesystem that is wiped after a reboot to ensure the PID is from a current system environment.

1.2b2 (2016-01-29)

  • Remove the deprecated ‘remote’ command alias.

  • Remove implicit dependency of Supervisor to Logrotation and Nagios.

    Supervisor now has the options logrotate and nagios that can be enabled per environment.

    Compatibility note: if you update from an existing setup with supervisor you should add this to your environments that actually use those features:

    logrotate = True
    nagios = True

    Otherwise environments will complain that the RotatedLogFile and nagios.Service have unsatisfied resource requirements. Alternatively you can drop the logrotate and nrpehost or nagiosserver components in environments where you don’t need them.

1.2b1 (2016-01-28)

  • Add more utilities for managing secrets: get an overview of all environments and what user keys are there, automatically add or remove users to all, one, or multiple environments.

  • Improve component error reporting.

  • Add ‘–check’ flag to deploy command. This causes batou to connect only to the first host and report any configuration errors.

    The target will have their batou repository updated, so here’s a friendly reminder that your deployment should not depend on the content of the repository directly but always only on things copied to the work environment.

  • Make the ‘–fast’ and ‘-F’ flags more robust.

  • Fix up some outdated examples (not all of them, though).

  • Fix configuration error reporting. Removing some code that would never get run. Do not report configuration errors as deployment errors.

  • Display ignored hosts during connection sequence to make numbers add up and clarify what’s going on.

1.1.2 (2016-01-20)

  • Improve error reporting for crontab component.

  • Fix error ordering.

  • Introduce syntax to disable deployment of hosts and components. Prefix a hostname with ‘!’ or a component name with ‘!’ to have it configured but not deployed. This supports temporary adjustments while keeping a consistent config.

    We mark this red in the output because this really needs to be used carefully.

    It replaces the approach in batou 1.0 where one would set up dummy hosts and use “batou local dev localhost”.

1.1.1 (2016-01-11)

  • Fix supervisor’s buildout dependency to avoid non-convergence of the pip-installed package.

1.1 (2016-01-03)

  • Fix Debian supervisor’s pid file attribute.
  • Update supervisor to 3.2.

1.1.0a12 (2015-11-24)

  • Fix curl initial bootstrap.

  • Allow to set the contact group of the Supervisor service check from the environment:

    check_contact_groups = group1, group2

1.1.0a11 (2015-11-24)

  • Allow to set the contact group of the Supervisor service check.

1.1.0a10 (2015-11-11)

  • Sort logfiles for logrotate to avoid superfluous reloading.

1.1.0a9 (2015-10-14)

  • Do not implicitly perform attribute conversions when applying overrides. Due to the behaviour of hasattr this shadowed conversion exceptions and also performed unnecessary computation or network access (e.g. DNS).

1.1.0a8 (2015-10-05)

  • Fix default pip arguments for installing packages. This stops rebuilds of python/buildout components on each run.
  • Change default virtualenv download URL to https and use the current FCIO mirror.

1.1.0a7 (2015-09-18)

  • Support Git < 2.0

  • Add support for managing Python 3.5 environments.

  • Update virtualenv to newest version for Python 2.7+ and all Python 3 versions.

  • Drop support for Python 3.1.

  • Update supervisor: 3.0 -> 3.1.3

    Includes updated dependencies.

  • Make socketpath in supervisor configurable.

  • Fix broken Python compatibility tests.

1.1.0a6 (2015-09-17)

  • Adjust Git repositories to correctly perform fast-forward merges.
  • Fix Mercurial repository tests that broke without noticing.
  • Add end-to-end test for our new error reporting which got a regression (#17617)

1.1.0a5 (2015-09-09)

  • Fix Mercurial repositories after refactorings for Git broke it.

1.1.0a4 (2015-09-06)

  • Actually get pull-based Git repositories to work. Still experimental, though.

1.1.0a3 (2015-09-05)

  • Initial support for managing batou projects with git. Git repositories support pull-based and bundle-based shipping.
  • Add backwards compatibility for batou remote to help users migrate their fingers.

1.1.0a2 (2015-09-03)

  • Fix updating from Batou 1.0

1.1.0a1 (2015-09-03)

  • Do request an update for packages installed from requirements.txt within the batou environment to help update VCS checkouts that are pinned.

  • Clear PYTHONPATH for bootstrapping to avoid accidental interaction with unclean Python environments.

  • Provide ‘–fast’ mode: do not perform bootstrapping.

    This is a first step to improve bootstrapping times. The switch is rather dumb but allows us to work a) offline in some cases and b) develop faster.

  • Fix unicode encoding/decoding in File handling. See #14944. (Ported from 1.0)

  • Fold the runner invocation for local and remote into a single deploy command:

    $ ./batou deploy <environment>

    By default batou will assume a remote environment. To configure an environment’s deployment mode use the connect_method attribute in the environment section:

    connect_method = local
  • Improve bootstrapping to give developers a better way to get started without installing batou system-wide or in a temporary virtualenv.

  • Revamp README and documentation.

  • Rework error handling and output management.

    batou will now show more errors at once, suppress unnecessary internal tracebacks and try to prioritize different errors to make complex failure situations easier to ingest.

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