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factory_boy 2.4.1

A verstile test fixtures replacement based on thoughtbot's factory_girl for Ruby.

factory_boy
===========

.. image:: https://secure.travis-ci.org/rbarrois/factory_boy.png?branch=master
:target: http://travis-ci.org/rbarrois/factory_boy/

factory_boy is a fixtures replacement based on thoughtbot's `factory_girl <http: github.com="" thoughtbot="" factory_girl="">`_.

As a fixtures replacement tool, it aims to replace static, hard to maintain fixtures
with easy-to-use factories for complex object.

Instead of building an exhaustive test setup with every possible combination of corner cases,
``factory_boy`` allows you to use objects customized for the current test,
while only declaring the test-specific fields:

.. code-block:: python

class FooTests(unittest.TestCase):

def test_with_factory_boy(self):
# We need a 200€, paid order, shipping to australia, for a VIP customer
order = OrderFactory(
amount=200,
status='PAID',
customer__is_vip=True,
address__country='AU',
)
# Run the tests here

def test_without_factory_boy(self):
address = Address(
street="42 fubar street",
zipcode="42Z42",
city="Sydney",
country="AU",
)
customer = Customer(
first_name="John",
last_name="Doe",
phone="+1234",
email="john.doe@example.org",
active=True,
is_vip=True,
address=address,
)
# etc.

factory_boy is designed to work well with various ORMs (Django, Mogo, SQLAlchemy),
and can easily be extended for other libraries.

Its main features include:

- Straightforward declarative syntax
- Chaining factory calls while retaining the global context
- Support for multiple build strategies (saved/unsaved instances, attribute dicts, stubbed objects)
- Multiple factories per class support, including inheritance


Links
-----

* Documentation: http://factoryboy.readthedocs.org/
* Repository: https://github.com/rbarrois/factory_boy
* Package: https://pypi.python.org/pypi/factory_boy/

factory_boy supports Python 2.6, 2.7, 3.2 and 3.3, as well as PyPy; it requires only the standard Python library.


Download
--------

PyPI: https://pypi.python.org/pypi/factory_boy/

.. code-block:: sh

$ pip install factory_boy

Source: https://github.com/rbarrois/factory_boy/

.. code-block:: sh

$ git clone git://github.com/rbarrois/factory_boy/
$ python setup.py install


Usage
-----


.. note:: This section provides a quick summary of factory_boy features.
A more detailed listing is available in the full documentation.


Defining factories
""""""""""""""""""

Factories declare a set of attributes used to instantiate an object.
The class of the object must be defined in the ``model`` field of a ``class Meta:`` attribute:

.. code-block:: python

import factory
from . import models

class UserFactory(factory.Factory):
class Meta:
model = models.User

first_name = 'John'
last_name = 'Doe'
admin = False

# Another, different, factory for the same object
class AdminFactory(factory.Factory):
class Meta:
model = models.User

first_name = 'Admin'
last_name = 'User'
admin = True


Using factories
"""""""""""""""

factory_boy supports several different build strategies: build, create, attributes and stub:

.. code-block:: python

# Returns a User instance that's not saved
user = UserFactory.build()

# Returns a saved User instance
user = UserFactory.create()

# Returns a dict of attributes that can be used to build a User instance
attributes = UserFactory.attributes()


You can use the Factory class as a shortcut for the default build strategy:

.. code-block:: python

# Same as UserFactory.create()
user = UserFactory()


No matter which strategy is used, it's possible to override the defined attributes by passing keyword arguments:

.. code-block:: pycon

# Build a User instance and override first_name
>>> user = UserFactory.build(first_name='Joe')
>>> user.first_name
"Joe"


It is also possible to create a bunch of objects in a single call:

.. code-block:: pycon

>>> users = UserFactory.build(10, first_name="Joe")
>>> len(users)
10
>>> [user.first_name for user in users]
["Joe", "Joe", "Joe", "Joe", "Joe", "Joe", "Joe", "Joe", "Joe", "Joe"]

Lazy Attributes
"""""""""""""""

Most factory attributes can be added using static values that are evaluated when the factory is defined,
but some attributes (such as fields whose value is computed from other elements)
will need values assigned each time an instance is generated.

These "lazy" attributes can be added as follows:

.. code-block:: python

class UserFactory(factory.Factory):
class Meta:
model = models.User

first_name = 'Joe'
last_name = 'Blow'
email = factory.LazyAttribute(lambda a: '{0}.{1}@example.com'.format(a.first_name, a.last_name).lower())

.. code-block:: pycon

>>> UserFactory().email
"joe.blow@example.com"


Sequences
"""""""""

Unique values in a specific format (for example, e-mail addresses) can be generated using sequences. Sequences are defined by using ``Sequence`` or the decorator ``sequence``:

.. code-block:: python

class UserFactory(factory.Factory):
class Meta:
model = models.User

email = factory.Sequence(lambda n: 'person{0}@example.com'.format(n))

>>> UserFactory().email
'person0@example.com'
>>> UserFactory().email
'person1@example.com'


Associations
""""""""""""

Some objects have a complex field, that should itself be defined from a dedicated factories.
This is handled by the ``SubFactory`` helper:

.. code-block:: python

class PostFactory(factory.Factory):
class Meta:
model = models.Post

author = factory.SubFactory(UserFactory)


The associated object's strategy will be used:


.. code-block:: python

# Builds and saves a User and a Post
>>> post = PostFactory()
>>> post.id is None # Post has been 'saved'
False
>>> post.author.id is None # post.author has been saved
False

# Builds but does not save a User, and then builds but does not save a Post
>>> post = PostFactory.build()
>>> post.id is None
True
>>> post.author.id is None
True


Debugging factory_boy
"""""""""""""""""""""

Debugging factory_boy can be rather complex due to the long chains of calls.
Detailed logging is available through the ``factory`` logger.

A helper, :meth:`factory.debug()`, is available to ease debugging:

.. code-block:: python

with factory.debug():
obj = TestModel2Factory()


import logging
logger = logging.getLogger('factory')
logger.addHandler(logging.StreamHandler())
logger.setLevel(logging.DEBUG)

This will yield messages similar to those (artificial indentation):

.. code-block:: ini

BaseFactory: Preparing tests.test_using.TestModel2Factory(extra={})
LazyStub: Computing values for tests.test_using.TestModel2Factory(two=<ordereddeclarationwrapper for="" <factory.declarations.subfactory="" object="" at="" 0x1e15610="">>)
SubFactory: Instantiating tests.test_using.TestModelFactory(__containers=(<lazystub for="" tests.test_using.testmodel2factory="">,), one=4), create=True
BaseFactory: Preparing tests.test_using.TestModelFactory(extra={'__containers': (<lazystub for="" tests.test_using.testmodel2factory="">,), 'one': 4})
LazyStub: Computing values for tests.test_using.TestModelFactory(one=4)
LazyStub: Computed values, got tests.test_using.TestModelFactory(one=4)
BaseFactory: Generating tests.test_using.TestModelFactory(one=4)
LazyStub: Computed values, got tests.test_using.TestModel2Factory(two=<tests.test_using.testmodel object="" at="" 0x1e15410="">)
BaseFactory: Generating tests.test_using.TestModel2Factory(two=<tests.test_using.testmodel object="" at="" 0x1e15410="">)


ORM Support
"""""""""""

factory_boy has specific support for a few ORMs, through specific :class:`~factory.Factory` subclasses:

* Django, with :class:`~factory.django.DjangoModelFactory`
* Mogo, with :class:`~factory.mogo.MogoFactory`
* MongoEngine, with :class:`~factory.mongoengine.MongoEngineFactory`
* SQLAlchemy, with :class:`~factory.alchemy.SQLAlchemyModelFactory`

Contributing
------------

factory_boy is distributed under the MIT License.

Issues should be opened through `GitHub Issues <http: github.com="" rbarrois="" factory_boy="" issues=""/>`_; whenever possible, a pull request should be included.

All pull request should pass the test suite, which can be launched simply with:

.. code-block:: sh

$ python setup.py test


.. note::

Running test requires the unittest2 (standard in Python 2.7+) and mock libraries.


In order to test coverage, please use:

.. code-block:: sh

$ pip install coverage
$ coverage erase; coverage run --branch setup.py test; coverage report


Contents, indices and tables
----------------------------

.. toctree::
:maxdepth: 2

introduction
reference
orms
recipes
fuzzy
examples
internals
changelog
ideas

* :ref:`genindex`
* :ref:`modindex`
* :ref:`search`

 
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