skip to navigation
skip to content

fwdpy11 0.1.3

Forward-time population genetic simulation in Python

Latest Version: 0.1.3.post1

This is the README for fwdpy11, which is a Python package for forward-time population genetic simulation. It uses fwdpp as its C++ back-end.

Build status





Development branch:


  • Picklable population objects
  • Parallel computation via multiprocessing or concurrent.futures.
  • Custom temporal samplers to analyze populations during a simulation may be written in pure Python.


The following must be present on your system:

  • GSL. This is a C library. It is available via conda.
  • pybind11. This should be installed via pip or conda as appropriate for your system.

fwdpy11 also uses fwdpp, which is included as a submodule.


GPLv3 or later (See COPYING)

Suppored Python version

fwdpy11 is written for Python 3. We will not modify the package to be compatible with Python 2.7.

git submodule init
git submodule update
python build_ext -i


The clang compiler is the assumed default on OS X. However, life is simpler if you use gcc. The takes a –gcc option that eliminates OS X-specific (really Xcode clang-specific) features so that an OS X/gcc build is possible.


Using pip on OS X and Linux (or pip3 as appropriate for your system):

pip install --upgrade fwdpy11

If you prefer a pip install on OS X using GCC instead of clang:

pip install --upgrade fwdpy11 --install-option=--gcc

You may or may not need to prefix the above with

CC=gcc CXX=g++

depending on wheter or not your user’s $PATH is set up to override Xcode’s symlink of gcc to clang.

Enabling assertions in the C++ code

The C++ code uses C’s assert macros in several places. These are disabled by default. However, it can be useful to enable them when hacking the code. To do so:

python build_ext -i --debug


Never install the package compiled in debug mode! First, things will run much more slowly. Second, triggering an assertion will cause the Python interpreter to crash. These assertions exist as a brute-force method to help developers quickly identify bugs.


fwdpy11 is available through bioconda for Linux and for OS X:

conda install -c bioconda fwdpy11

The OS X build is built using gcc.

File Type Py Version Uploaded on Size
fwdpy11-0.1.3.tar.gz (md5) Source 2017-09-14 324KB