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gino 0.6.1

GINO Is Not ORM - a Python asyncio ORM on SQLAlchemy core.


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:alt: Documentation Status

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:alt: Updates

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:alt: Gitter chat

GINO - GINO Is Not ORM - is a lightweight asynchronous ORM built on top of
SQLAlchemy_ core for Python asyncio_. Now (early 2018) GINO supports only one
dialect asyncpg_.

* Free software: BSD license
* Requires: Python 3.6


* English_
* Chinese_


* Robust SQLAlchemy-asyncpg bi-translator with no hard hack
* Asynchronous SQLAlchemy-alike engine and connection
* Asynchronous dialect API
* Asynchronous-friendly CRUD objective models
* Well-considered contextual connection and transaction management
* Reusing native SQLAlchemy core to build queries with grammar sugars
* Support Sanic_ and Tornado_
* Rich PostgreSQL JSONB support


.. code-block:: python

import asyncio
from gino import Gino

db = Gino()

class User(db.Model):
__tablename__ = 'users'

id = db.Column(db.Integer(), primary_key=True)
nickname = db.Column(db.Unicode(), default='noname')

async def main():
await db.set_bind('postgresql://localhost/gino')

# Create tables
await db.gino.create_all()

# Create object, `id` is assigned by database
u1 = await User.create(nickname='fantix')
print(, u1.nickname) # 1 fantix

# Returns all user objects with "d" in their nicknames
users = await User.query.where(User.nickname.contains('d')).gino.all()
print(users) # [<user object="">, <user object="">]

# Find one user object, None if not found
user = await User.query.where(User.nickname == 'daisy').gino.first()
print(user) # <user object=""> or None

# Execute complex statement and return command status
status, result = await User.update.values(
nickname='No.' + db.cast(, db.Unicode),
).where( > 10,
print(status) # UPDATE 8

# Iterate over the results of a large query in a transaction as required
async with db.transaction():
async for u in User.query.order_by(
print(, u.nickname)


About The Name

About the name GINO Is Not ORM - because I don't really like ORM (smile). GINO
does perform the Object-Relational Mapping work under the
`Data Mapper Pattern <https:"" wiki="" data_mapper_pattern="">`_, but
it is just not a traditional ORM. The Objects in GINO are completely stateless
from database - they are pure plain Python objects in memory. Changing their
attribute values does not make them "dirty" - or in a different way of thinking
they are always "dirty". Any access to database must be explicitly executed.
Using GINO is more like making up SQL clauses with Models and Objects,
executing them to make changes in database, or loading data from database and
wrapping the results with Objects again. Objects are just row data containers,
you are still dealing with SQL which is represented by Models and SQLAlchemy
core grammars. Besides if you don't like ORM at all, you can use GINO without

.. code-block:: python

import sqlalchemy as sa

metadata = sa.MetaData()

user = sa.Table(
'users', metadata,
sa.Column('id', sa.BigInteger(), primary_key=True),
sa.Column('nickname', sa.Unicode()),

import gino

async def main():
e = await gino.create_engine('postgresql://localhost/gino')
users = await e.all([user]))
# prints something like this:
# [(1, 'fantix'), (2, 'fantix'), (3, 'fantix'), (5, 'fantix')]

import asyncio


or a bit more GINO-ish:

.. code-block:: python

from gino import Gino

db = Gino()

user = db.Table(
'users', db,
db.Column('id', db.BigInteger(), primary_key=True),
db.Column('nickname', db.Unicode()),

async def main():
async with db.with_bind('postgresql://localhost/gino'):
users = await[user]).gino.all()

import asyncio



There are a few tasks in GitHub issues marked as ``help wanted``. Please feel
free to take any of them and pull requests are greatly welcome.

To run tests:

.. code-block:: console

$ python test


Credit goes to all contributors listed or not listed in the AUTHORS file. This
project is inspired by asyncpgsa_, peewee-async_ and asyncorm_. asyncpg_ and
SQLAlchemy_ as the dependencies did most of the heavy lifting. This package was
created with Cookiecutter_ and the `audreyr/cookiecutter-pypackage`_ project

Special thanks to my wife Daisy and her outsourcing company `DecentFoX Studio`_,
for offering me the opportunity to build this project. We are open for global
software project outsourcing on Python, iOS and Android development.

.. _Cookiecutter:
.. _`audreyr/cookiecutter-pypackage`:
.. _SQLAlchemy:
.. _asyncpg:
.. _PostgreSQL:
.. _asyncio:
.. _Alembic:
.. _Sanic:
.. _asyncpgsa:
.. _peewee-async:
.. _asyncorm:
.. _Tornado:
.. _English:
.. _Chinese:
.. _DecentFoX Studio:

.. highlight:: python3


GINO 0.6

This is also version 1.0 beta 2.

Migrating to GINO 0.6

1. Task Local

We created a new Python package aiocontextvars_ from previous ````. If
you made use of the task local features, you should install this package.

Previous ``gino.enable_task_local()`` and ``gino.disable_task_local()`` are
replaced by ``aiocontextvars.enable_inherit()`` and
``aiocontextvars.disable_inherit()``. However in GINO 0.5 they controls the
whole task local feature switch, while aiocontextvars_ by default offers task
local even without ``enable_inherit()``, which controls whether the local
storage should be passed between chained tasks. When enabled, it behaves the
same as enabled in 0.5, but you cannot completely turn off the task local
feature while aiocontextvars_ is installed.

There is no ``gino.get_local()`` and ``gino.reset_local()`` relevant in
aiocontextvars_. The similar thing is ``aiocontextvars.ContextVar`` instance
through its ``get()``, ``set()`` and ``delete()`` methods.

Previous ``gino.is_local_root()`` is now
``not aiocontextvars.Context.current().inherited``.

2. Engine

GINO 0.6 hides ``asyncpg.Pool`` behind the new SQLAlchemy-alike
``gino.GinoEngine``. Instead of doing this in 0.5::

async with db.create_pool('postgresql://...') as pool:
# your code here

You should change it to this in 0.6::

async with db.with_bind('postgresql://...') as engine:
# your code here

This equals to::

engine = await gino.create_engine('postgresql://...')
db.bind = engine
# your code here
db.bind = None
await engine.close()


engine = await db.set_bind('postgresql://...')
# your code here
await db.pop_bind().close()

Or even this::

db = await gino.Gino('postgresql://...')
# your code here
await db.pop_bind().close()

Choose whichever suits you the best.

Obviously ``GinoEngine`` doesn't provide ``asyncpg.Pool`` methods directly any
longer, but you can get the underlying ``asyncpg.Pool`` object through
``engine.raw_pool`` property.

``GinoPool.get_current_connection()`` is now changed to ``current_connection``
property on ``GinoEngine`` instances to support multiple engines.

``GinoPool.execution_option`` is gone, instead ``update_execution_options()``
on ``GinoEngine`` instance is available.

``GinoPool().metadata`` is gone, ``dialect`` is still available.

``GinoPool.release()`` is removed in ``GinoEngine`` and ``Gino``, the
``release()`` method on ``GinoConnection`` object should be used instead.

These methods exist both in 0.5 ``GinoPool`` and 0.6 ``GinoEngine``:
``close()``, ``acquire()``, ``all()``, ``first()``, ``scalar()``, ``status()``.

3. GinoConnection

Similarly, ``GinoConnection`` in 0.6 is no longer a subclass of
``asyncpg.Connection``, instead it has a ``asyncpg.Connection`` instance,
accessable through ``GinoConnection.raw_connection`` property.

``GinoConnection.metadata`` is deleted in 0.6, while ``dialect`` remained.

``GinoConnection.execution_options()`` is changed from a mutable dict in 0.5 to
a method returning a copy of current connection with the new options, the same
as SQLAlchemy behavior.

``GinoConnection.release()`` is still present, but its default behavior has
been changed to permanently release this connection. You should add argument
``permanent=False`` to remain its previous behavior.

And ``all()``, ``first()``, ``scalar()``, ``status()``, ``iterate()``,
``transaction()`` remained in 0.6.

4. Query API

All five query APIs ``all()``, ``first()``, ``scalar()``, ``status()``,
``iterate()`` now accept the same parameters as SQLAlchemy ``execute()``,
meaning they accept raw SQL text, or multiple sets of parameters for
"executemany". Please note, if the parameters are recognized as "executemany",
none of the methods will return anything. Meanwhile, they no longer accept the
parameter ``bind`` if they did. Just use the API on the ``GinoEngine`` or
``GinoConnection`` object instead.

5. Transaction

Transaction interface is rewritten. Now in 0.6, a ``GinoTransaction`` object is
provided consistently from all 3 methods::

async with db.transaction() as tx:
# within transaction

async with engine.transaction() as tx:
# within transaction

async with engine.acquire() as conn:
async with conn.transaction() as tx:
# within transaction

And different usage with ``await``::

tx = await db.transaction()
# within transaction
await tx.commit()
await tx.rollback()

The ``GinoConnection`` object is available at ``tx.connection``, while
underlying transaction object from database driver is available at
``tx.transaction`` - for asyncpg it is an ``asyncpg.transaction.Transaction``

0.6.1 (2018-03-18)

* Fixed ``create`` and ``drop`` for ``Enum`` type (#160)
* A bit more documentation (#159)

0.6.0 (2018-03-14)

* [Breaking] API Refactored, ``Pool`` replaced with ``Engine``

* New API ``Engine`` replaced asyncpg ``Pool`` (#59)
* Supported different dialects, theoretically
* Used aiocontextvars_ instead of builtin task local (#89)
* [Breaking] Fixed query API with ``multiparams`` (executemany) to return correctly (#20)
* [Breaking] The query methods no longer accept the parameter ``bind``
* [Breaking] ``Gino`` no longer exposes ``postgresql`` types
* Added ``echo`` on engine (#142)
* Added tests to cover 80% of code
* Added ``gino`` extension on ``SchemaItem`` for ``create_all`` and so on (#76 #106)
* Added ``gino`` extension on model classes for ``create()`` or ``drop()``
* Added ``_update_request_cls`` on ``CRUDModel`` (#147)
* Rewrote the documentation (#146)

.. _aiocontextvars:

GINO 0.5

This is also version 1.0 beta 1.

0.5.8 (2018-02-14)

* Preparing for 0.6.0 which will be a breaking release
* Fixed wrong value of ``Enum`` in creation (Contributed by Sergey Kovalev in #126)

0.5.7 (2017-11-24)

This is an emergency fix for 0.5.6.

* Fixed broken lazy connection (Contributed by Ádám Barancsuk in #114)
* Added ``Model.outerjoin``

0.5.6 (2017-11-23)

* Changed to use unnamed statement when possible (#80 #90)
* Added more example (Contributed by Kentoseth in #109)
* Added ``Model.join`` and made ``Model`` selectable (Contributed by Ádám Barancsuk in #112 #113)

0.5.5 (2017-10-18)

* Ensured clean connection if transaction acquire fails (Contributed by Vladimir Goncharov in #87)
* Added ability to reset local storage (#84)
* Fixed bug in JSON property update
* Added update chaining feature

0.5.4 (2017-10-04)

* Updated example (Contributed by Kinware in #75)
* Added ``Model.insert`` (Contributed by Neal Wang in #63)
* Fixed issue that non-lazy acquiring fails dirty (#79)

0.5.3 (2017-09-23)

* Fixed ``no module named cutils`` error (Contributed by Vladimir Goncharov in #73)

0.5.2 (2017-09-10)

* Added missing driver name on dialect (#67)
* Fixed dialect to support native decimal type (#67)

0.5.1 (2017-09-09)

This is an emergency fix for 0.5.0.

* Reverted the extension, back to pure Python (#60)
* Used SQLAlchemy ``RowProxy``
* Added ``first_or_404``
* Fixed bug that ``GinoPool`` cannot be inherited

0.5.0 (2017-09-03)

* [Breaking] Internal refactor: extracted and isolated a few modules, partially rewritten

* Extracted CRUD operations
* Core operations are moved to ``dialect`` and execution context
* Removed ``guess_model``, switched to explicit execution options
* Turned ``timeout`` parameter to an execution option
* Extracted ``pool``, ``connection`` and ``api`` from ``asyncpg_delegate``
* Added support for SQLAlchemy execution options, and a few custom options
* [Breaking] Made `` return rows by default (#39)
* Moved `get_or_404` to extensions (#38)
* Added iterator on model classes (#43)
* Added Tornado extension (Contributed by Vladimir Goncharov)
* Added `Model.to_dict` (#47)
* Added an extension module to update `asyncpg.Record` with processed results

Early Development Releases

Considered as alpha releases.

0.4.1 (2017-08-20)

* Support ``select`` on model instance

0.4.0 (2017-08-15)

* Made ``get_or_404`` more friendly when Sanic is missing (Contributed by Neal Wang in #23 #31)
* Delegated ``sqlalchemy.__all__`` (Contributed by Neal Wang in #10 #33)
* [Breaking] Rewrote JSON/JSONB support (#29)
* Added ``lazy`` parameter on ``db.acquire`` (Contributed by Binghan Li in #32)
* Added Sanic integration (Contributed by Binghan Li, Tony Wang in #30 #32 #34)
* Fixed ``iterate`` API to be compatible with asyncpg (#32)
* Unified exceptions
* [Breaking] Changed ``update`` API (#29)
* Bug fixes

0.3.0 (2017-08-07)

* Supported ``__table_args__`` (#12)
* Introduced task local to manage connection in context (#19)
* Added ``query.gino`` extension for in-place execution
* Refreshed README (#3)
* Adopted PEP 487 (Contributed by Tony Wang in #17 #27)
* Used ``weakref`` on ``__model__`` of table and query (Contributed by Tony Wang)
* Delegated asyncpg ``timeout`` parameter (Contributed by Neal Wang in #16 #22)

0.2.3 (2017-08-04)

* Supported any primary key (Contributed by Tony Wang in #11)

0.2.2 (2017-08-02)

* Supported SQLAlchemy result processor
* Added rich support on JSON/JSONB
* Bug fixes

0.2.1 (2017-07-28)

* Added ``update`` and ``delete`` API

0.2.0 (2017-07-28)

* Changed API, no longer reuses asyncpg API

0.1.1 (2017-07-25)

* Added ``db.bind``
* API changed: parameter ``conn`` renamed to optional ``bind``
* Delegated asyncpg Pool with ``db.create_pool``
* Internal enhancement and bug fixes

0.1.0 (2017-07-21)

* First release on PyPI.

File Type Py Version Uploaded on Size
gino-0.6.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl (md5) Python Wheel py2.py3 2018-03-18 63KB
gino-0.6.1.tar.gz (md5) Source 2018-03-18 74KB