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httpretty 0.8.0

HTTP client mock for Python

HTTPretty 0.8.0
===============

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`ChangeLog <NEWS.md>`__

Installing
==========

Since you are interested in HTTPretty you should also be insterested in
speeding up your build. Replace ``pip`` with
```curdling`` <http://clarete.github.io/curdling/>`__ and see your build
running a lot faster.

You can use curdling to install not only HTTPretty but every dependency
in your project and see the speed gains.

.. code:: bash

    $ easy_install curdling
    $ curd install HTTPretty

In a nutshell
=============

Once upon a time a python developer wanted to use a RESTful api,
everything was fine but until the day they needed to test the code that
hits the RESTful API: what if the API server is down? What if its
content has changed ?

Don't worry, HTTPretty is here for you:

.. code:: python

    import requests
    from sure import expect
    import httpretty


    @httpretty.activate
    def test_yipit_api_returning_deals():
        httpretty.register_uri(httpretty.GET, "http://api.yipit.com/v1/deals/",
                               body='[{"title": "Test Deal"}]',
                               content_type="application/json")

        response = requests.get('http://api.yipit.com/v1/deals/')

        expect(response.json()).to.equal([{"title": "Test Deal"}])

A more technical description
============================

HTTPretty is a HTTP client mock library for Python 100% inspired on
ruby's `FakeWeb <http://fakeweb.rubyforge.org/>`__. If you come from
ruby this would probably sound familiar :)

Usage
=====

expecting a simple response body
--------------------------------

.. code:: python

    import requests
    import httpretty

    def test_one():
        httpretty.enable()  # enable HTTPretty so that it will monkey patch the socket module
        httpretty.register_uri(httpretty.GET, "http://yipit.com/",
                               body="Find the best daily deals")

        response = requests.get('http://yipit.com')

        assert response.text == "Find the best daily deals"

        httpretty.disable()  # disable afterwards, so that you will have no problems in code that uses that socket module
        httpretty.reset()    # reset HTTPretty state (clean up registered urls and request history)

testing query strings
---------------------

.. code:: python

    import requests
    from sure import expect
    import httpretty

    def test_one():
        httpretty.enable()  # enable HTTPretty so that it will monkey patch the socket module
        httpretty.register_uri(httpretty.GET, "http://yipit.com/login",
                               body="Find the best daily deals")

        requests.get('http://yipit.com/login?email=user@github.com&password=foobar123')
        expect(httpretty.last_request()).to.have.property("querystring").being.equal({
            "email": "user@github.com",
            "password": "foobar123",
        })

        httpretty.disable()  # disable afterwards, so that you will have no problems in code that uses that socket module

ohhhh, really? can that be easier?
----------------------------------

**YES** we've got a decorator

.. code:: python

    import requests
    import httpretty

    @httpretty.activate
    def test_one():
        httpretty.register_uri(httpretty.GET, "http://yipit.com/",
                               body="Find the best daily deals")

        response = requests.get('http://yipit.com')
        assert response.text == "Find the best daily deals"

the ``@httpretty.activate`` is a short-hand decorator that wraps the
decorated function with httpretty.enable() and then calls
httpretty.disable() right after.

mocking the status code
-----------------------

.. code:: python

    import requests
    from sure import expect
    import httpretty

    @httpretty.activate
    def test_github_access():
        httpretty.register_uri(httpretty.GET, "http://github.com/",
                               body="here is the mocked body",
                               status=201)

        response = requests.get('http://github.com')
        expect(response.status_code).to.equal(201)

you can tell HTTPretty to return any HTTP headers you want
----------------------------------------------------------

**and all you need is to add keyword args in which the keys are always
lower-cased and with underscores ``_`` instead of dashes ``-``**

For example, let's say you want to mock that server returns
``content-type``. To do so, use the argument ``content_type``, **all the
keyword args are taken by HTTPretty and transformed in the RFC2616
equivalent name**.

.. code:: python

    @httpretty.activate
    def test_some_api():
        httpretty.register_uri(httpretty.GET, "http://foo-api.com/gabrielfalcao",
                               body='{"success": false}',
                               status=500,
                               content_type='text/json')

        response = requests.get('http://foo-api.com/gabrielfalcao')

        expect(response.json()).to.equal({'success': False})
        expect(response.status_code).to.equal(500)

Adding extra headers and forcing headers
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

You can pass the ``adding_headers`` argument as a dictionary and your
headers will be
`united <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Union_(set_theory)>`__ to the
existing headers.

.. code:: python

    @httpretty.activate
    def test_some_api():
        httpretty.register_uri(httpretty.GET, "http://foo-api.com/gabrielfalcao",
                               body='{"success": false}',
                               status=500,
                               content_type='text/json',
                               adding_headers={
                                   'X-foo': 'bar'
                               })

        response = requests.get('http://foo-api.com/gabrielfalcao')

        expect(response.json()).to.equal({'success': False})
        expect(response.status_code).to.equal(500)

Although there are some situation where some headers line
``content-length`` will be calculated by HTTPretty based on the
specified fake response body.

So you might want to *"force"* those headers:

.. code:: python

    @httpretty.activate
    def test_some_api():
        httpretty.register_uri(httpretty.GET, "http://foo-api.com/gabrielfalcao",
                               body='{"success": false}',
                               status=500,
                               content_type='text/json',
                               forcing_headers={
                                   'content-length': '100'
                               })

        response = requests.get('http://foo-api.com/gabrielfalcao')

        expect(response.json()).to.equal({'success': False})
        expect(response.status_code).to.equal(500)

You should, though, be careful with it. The HTTP client is likely to
rely on the content length to know how many bytes of response payload
should be loaded. Forcing a ``content-length`` that is bigger than the
action response body might cause the HTTP client to hang because it is
waiting for data. Read more in the "caveats" session on the bottom.

rotating responses
------------------

Same URL, same request method, the first request return the first
httpretty.Response, all the subsequent ones return the last (status
202).

Notice that the ``responses`` argument is a list and you can pass as
many responses as you want.

.. code:: python

    import requests
    from sure import expect


    @httpretty.activate
    def test_rotating_responses():
        httpretty.register_uri(httpretty.GET, "http://github.com/gabrielfalcao/httpretty",
                               responses=[
                                   httpretty.Response(body="first response", status=201),
                                   httpretty.Response(body='second and last response', status=202),
                                ])

        response1 = requests.get('http://github.com/gabrielfalcao/httpretty')
        expect(response1.status_code).to.equal(201)
        expect(response1.text).to.equal('first response')

        response2 = requests.get('http://github.com/gabrielfalcao/httpretty')
        expect(response2.status_code).to.equal(202)
        expect(response2.text).to.equal('second and last response')

        response3 = requests.get('http://github.com/gabrielfalcao/httpretty')

        expect(response3.status_code).to.equal(202)
        expect(response3.text).to.equal('second and last response')

streaming responses
-------------------

Mock a streaming response by registering a generator response body.

.. code:: python

    import requests
    from sure import expect
    import httpretty

    # mock a streaming response body with a generator
    def mock_streaming_tweets(tweets):
        from time import sleep
        for t in tweets:
            sleep(.5)
            yield t

    @httpretty.activate
    def test_twitter_api_integration(now):
        twitter_response_lines = [
            '{"text":"If @BarackObama requests to follow me one more time I\'m calling the police."}\r\n',
            '\r\n',
            '{"text":"Thanks for all your #FollowMe1D requests Directioners! We\u2019ll be following 10 people throughout the day starting NOW. G ..."}\r\n'
        ]

        TWITTER_STREAMING_URL = "https://stream.twitter.com/1/statuses/filter.json"

        # set the body to a generator and set `streaming=True` to mock a streaming response body
        httpretty.register_uri(httpretty.POST, TWITTER_STREAMING_URL,
                               body=mock_streaming_tweets(twitter_response_lines),
                               streaming=True)

        # taken from the requests docs
        # http://docs.python-requests.org/en/latest/user/advanced/#streaming-requests
        response = requests.post(TWITTER_STREAMING_URL, data={'track':'requests'},
                                auth=('username','password'), prefetch=False)

        #test iterating by line
        line_iter = response.iter_lines()
        for i in xrange(len(twitter_response_lines)):
            expect(line_iter.next().strip()).to.equal(twitter_response_lines[i].strip())

dynamic responses through callbacks
-----------------------------------

Set a callback to allow for dynamic responses based on the request.

.. code:: python

    import requests
    from sure import expect
    import httpretty

    @httpretty.activate
    def test_response_callbacks():

        def request_callback(method, uri, headers):
            return (200, headers, "The {} response from {}".format(method, uri))

        httpretty.register_uri(
            httpretty.GET, "https://api.yahoo.com/test",
            body=request_callback)

        response = requests.get('https://api.yahoo.com/test')

        expect(response.text).to.equal('The GET response from https://api.yahoo.com/test')

matching regular expressions
----------------------------

You can register a `compiled
regex <http://docs.python.org/2/library/re.html#re.compile>`__ and it
will be matched against the requested urls.

.. code:: python

    @httpretty.activate
    def test_httpretty_should_allow_registering_regexes():
        u"HTTPretty should allow registering regexes"

        httpretty.register_uri(
            httpretty.GET,
            re.compile("api.yipit.com/v2/deal;brand=(\w+)"),
            body="Found brand",
        )

        response = requests.get('https://api.yipit.com/v2/deal;brand=GAP')
        expect(response.text).to.equal('Found brand')
        expect(httpretty.last_request().method).to.equal('GET')
        expect(httpretty.last_request().path).to.equal('/v1/deal;brand=GAP')

By default, the regexp you register will match the requests without
looking at the querystring. If you want the querystring to be
considered, you can set ``match_querystring=True`` when calling
``register_uri``.

expect for a response, and check the request got by the "server" to make sure it was fine.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

.. code:: python

    import requests
    from sure import expect
    import httpretty


    @httpretty.activate
    def test_yipit_api_integration():
        httpretty.register_uri(httpretty.POST, "http://api.yipit.com/foo/",
                               body='{"repositories": ["HTTPretty", "lettuce"]}')

        response = requests.post('http://api.yipit.com/foo',
                                '{"username": "gabrielfalcao"}',
                                headers={
                                    'content-type': 'text/json',
                                })

        expect(response.text).to.equal('{"repositories": ["HTTPretty", "lettuce"]}')
        expect(httpretty.last_request().method).to.equal("POST")
        expect(httpretty.last_request().headers['content-type']).to.equal('text/json')

checking if is enabled
----------------------

.. code:: python


    httpretty.enable()
    httpretty.is_enabled().should.be.true

    httpretty.disable()
    httpretty.is_enabled().should.be.false

Motivation
==========

When building systems that access external resources such as RESTful
webservices, XMLRPC or even simple HTTP requests, we stumble in the
problem:

::

    "I'm gonna need to mock all those requests"

It brings a lot of hassle, you will need to use a generic mocking tool,
mess with scope and so on.

The idea behind HTTPretty (how it works)
----------------------------------------

HTTPretty `monkey patches <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monkey_patch>`__
Python's `socket <http://docs.python.org/library/socket.html>`__ core
module, reimplementing the HTTP protocol, by mocking requests and
responses.

As for it works in this way, you don't need to worry what http library
you're gonna use.

HTTPretty will mock the response for you :) *(and also give you the
latest requests so that you can check them)*

Acknowledgements
================

caveats with the `requests <http://docs.python-requests.org/en/latest/>`__ library
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------

``forcing_headers`` + ``Content-Length``
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

if you use the ``forcing_headers`` options make sure to add the header
``Content-Length`` otherwise the
`requests <http://docs.python-requests.org/en/latest/>`__ will try to
load the response endlessly

Officially supported libraries
==============================

Because HTTPretty works in the socket level it should work with any HTTP
client libraries, although it is `battle
tested <https://github.com/gabrielfalcao/HTTPretty/tree/master/tests/functional>`__
against:

-  `requests <http://docs.python-requests.org/en/latest/>`__
-  `httplib2 <http://code.google.com/p/httplib2/>`__
-  `urllib2 <http://docs.python.org/2/library/urllib2.html>`__

Hacking on HTTPretty
====================

create a virtual env
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

you will need
`virtualenvwrapper <http://www.doughellmann.com/projects/virtualenvwrapper/>`__

.. code:: console

    mkvirtualenv --distribute --no-site-packages HTTPretty

install the dependencies
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

.. code:: console

    pip install -r requirements.txt

next steps:
^^^^^^^^^^^

1. run the tests with make:

   .. code:: bash

       make unit functional

2. hack at will
3. commit, push etc
4. send a pull request

License
=======

::

    <HTTPretty - HTTP client mock for Python>
    Copyright (C) <2011-2013>  Gabriel Falcão <gabriel@nacaolivre.org>

    Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person
    obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation
    files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without
    restriction, including without limitation the rights to use,
    copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
    copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the
    Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following
    conditions:

    The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be
    included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

    THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
    EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES
    OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
    NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT
    HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY,
    WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING
    FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR
    OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

Main contributors
=================

There folks made remarkable contributions to HTTPretty:

-  Steve Pulec ~> @spulec
-  Hugh Saunders ~> @hughsaunders
-  Matt Luongo ~> @mhluongo
-  James Rowe ~> @JNRowe

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