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importd 0.4.3

A django based miniframework, inspired by Sinatra

Package Documentation

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What is importd?

Slides of a talk I gave about importd:

Django is awesome, but starting a new project in it is a pain. importd is
inspired from ruby's sinatra. Hello world django project:

.. code-block:: python

from importd import d

def idx(request):
return "index.html"

def post(request, post_id):
return "post.html", {"post_id": post_id}

if __name__ == "__main__":

To run it:

.. code:: bash

$ python

This will start the debug server.

To run it in production:

.. code:: bash

$ gunicorn foo:d


* Simple example :
* importd-boilerplate :

* importd + jinja2 + django-debug-toolbar + django REST framework

Settings Framework

Managing settings in django is done via a file. Then people put a
```` to override. This does not scale too well, we end up
having very big settings file with almost no structure, and there are many
issues because of lack of synchronization of ```` among
developer's machines.

importd has some methods to hopefully make this simpler and more standardized.

First of all there is no ````. Setting customization are of two
kinds, picking different things for development and prod, eg you want to
activate statsd for prod, but debug_toolbar for development. Both these should
be checked in so there is no scope of people not getting some setting
accidentally. Then there are setting customization for not storing some things
in version control system, say passwords and access tokens and keys. These
should be managed via environment variable.

And then there is also a concern of exposing settings to template. We have a
template context processor, which can expost whole settings to templates, but
that is uncomfortable to many. You may want to expose only a small subset of
things you describe in settings, and you want to do this with minimal fuss.


With that in mind importd has ``env()``, which simply reads data from
enironment. So in your you can do:

.. code:: python

from importd import d, env
DEBUG=not env("IS_PROD", False),
db=env("DB_URL", "mysql://root:@localhost/dbname")

It is highly recommended you include ``envdir`` in your project. May be someday
importd will auto detect envdir and set it up.

``env`` is pretty smart, it takes ``default=`` and ``factory=``. If ``default``
is passed, the string value of environment variable is converted to the
``type()`` of ``default``. You can overwrite this behaviour by passing your own
``factory``, or you can disable this behaviour altogether by passing

``env()`` also treats booleans by converting strings like "False/off/no" (case
insensitive) to python's ``False`` value (and non empty string to True as
``bool()`` does).


With ``.debug()`` you can set some setting to have different values based on

.. code:: python

from importd import d, debug
DEBUG=not env("IS_PROD", False),
'django_statsd.clients.toolbar', prod='django_statsd.clients.normal'

This will set ``STATSD_CLIENT`` to appropriate value based on if we are in debug
mode or not. This is as simple as putting an if condition, but it gets repeated
so many times, its worth using this shortcut. Also this way things stay in same
place, you do not look for up and down the settings file, and in to see if the variable has been overwritten.


This lets you "expose" a setting for access in templates. You should not use
``"django.core.context_processors.settings"`` as a
``TEMPLATE_CONTEXT_PROCESSORS``, instead use ``"importd.esettings"`` context
preprocessor, and in templates you will have access to ``esettings`` variable.

To mark a variable as exposed you have to do this:

.. code:: python

from importd import d, e

SOME_VAR=e("its value"),

This will make ``SOME_VAR`` available in settings as well as in ``esettings``.

``importd.s``` parameter
This lets you re-use settings variables. In settings file we define variables
and reuse them when needed. In importd you can reuse defined settings variables.

.. code:: python
from importd import d, s


This will set ``TEMPLATE_DEBUG`` settings variable to ``DEBUG`` value.
``s`` will raise ``ImproperlyConfiguredError`` exception if you will try to use
it inside of key value.

.. code:: python
from importd import d, s

ADMINS=(s("EMAIL"), "")

Above example will raise ``ImproperlyConfiguredError``.

``d(debug={})`` parameter

Some settings are only needed in debug environment, or need to be overwritten,
you can use the ``debug=`` keyword argument to set things up.

.. code:: python

from importd import d

SOME_VAR="this is prod value",
SOME_VAR="this is debug value"

You can also use `importd.NotSet` as a value in debug dict, and the setting will
be removed altogether in the approprite environment (debug or prod).

Above method will open envdir directory in current directory and will load all
environment variable inside this directory. If path is realpath i.e. full path
then importd will try to look into specified path. If relative path
specified into path then importd will look relative to current directory.

It is recommended to call it just after importing d.

debug:/prod: prefix for ``INSTALLED_APPS`` etc

It is a common pattern that some apps are only needed in debug environment, say
devserver, or debug_toolbar. And since order of apps in ``INSTALLED_APPS``, and
middelware etc is important, we end up copying the whole ``INSTALLED_APPS``,
``MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES`` etc for prod and dev, and this then tend to diverge since
they are in different locations. Not good.

.. code:: python

from importd import d, env
DEBUG=env("IS_PROD", True),



Notice the ``debug:`` prefix in ``devserver`` and ``debug_toolbar``. Depending
on the value of ``DEBUG``, these lines would be included or not. importd looks
for strings in ``MIDDLEWARE_CLASSES``, ``INSTALLED_APPS`` and

Similarly if something starts with ``prod:``, it is only included in production

Backward Incompatibile Change

``d.main()`` used to be not required, now it is.


* fully compatible with django
* supports smarturls
* most of regularly used django functions and classes available in d.
namespace, eg d.HttpResponse, d.render_to_response, d.get_object_or_404 etc
* automatically maps "templates" folder in directory to serve templates
* automatically maps "static" folder in to serve static content
* management commands still available: $ python shell
* wsgi compliant
* gunicorn support
* works seamlessly with fhurl (
* Auto Add django-debug-toolbar (Needs to add it manually to INSTALLED_APPS)
* Auto SECRET_KEY: If no SECRET_KEY on settings, try to read SECRET_KEY from
./secret.txt , if no ./secret.txt generate a random string then write it to
./secret.txt and finally return it as SECRET_KEY.
* Auto Add coffin/django-jinja (jinja2 integration)
* Support for livereload


.. code:: bash

$ pip install importd




* Amit Upadhyay (
* Dmytro Vorona (
* Jannis Leidel (
* Lukasz Balcerzak (
* Juan Carlos (
* Josep Cugat (
* Yu Byunghoo (
* Arpit Singh (
* Hitul Mistry (

Contribution Guide

To view this file, or any restructuredtext file locally before comitting on git,
install ``restview`` from pypi.

**Pull Requests**: If you fork this repository to send pull request, please
create a branch for your work instead of working directly on master. This way
your master will track my master, and in case the pull request is rejected, or
delayed, your master stays clean. This also makes easy to send more than one
pull requests from your fork.


importd ChangeLog

0.4.3 - 12-Oct-2015
* New tag s added.
* It is recommended to call d.openenv before calling it in main.
* Extra python path cannot be added into d as kwargs.

0.4.2 - 9-Oct-2015
* Fixed process_view of middleware not called.
* Extra python path can be added into d as kwargs argument ENVDIR.

0.4.1 - 30-Sep-2015
* Fixed AttributeError when calling d.dotslash.
* don't auto configure ROOT_URLCONF if already configured

0.4.0 - 27-Aug-2015

Settings Framework Release

* added `debug` keyword argument that takes dict and is added to base settings
only if DEBUG is true
* added importd.env, which checks a key in environment and if not present
returns a default value (so that I do not have to write this utility
* added a importd.debug() that can be used for conditional settings
for settings that starts with "debug:", such values are dropped completely in
prod, and in debug the "debug:" prefix is stripped. similarly we have "prod:".
* created impoortd.e() which can be used to "expose" some of the settings to
template. in order to use it in template, add a template context processor
"importd.esettings", this will make available a variable named "esettings".

0.3.3 - 24-Feb-2015

* added livereload command/feature.

0.3.2 - 27-Jan-2015

* Added blueprint document.
* calling django.setup() when available

0.3.1 - 27-Oct-2014

* released without blueprint thing. rereleasing.

0.3.0 - 27-Oct-2014

* Changed default setting STATIC_ROOT from ``static`` to ``staticfiles`` and set new default setting STATICFILES_DIRS to ``static``. This means that if you use the collectstatic management command, it will collect the files from the ``static`` folder and copy them to ``staticfiles``. If you use an external web server, you have to change the local path of the url http://server/static/ to serve files from the ``staticfiles`` folder.
* Auto Add django-debug-toolbar: try to import it, if sucessful and is not on settings and the database exist(debug_toolbar needs a DB) and DEBUG=True, then configure debug_toolbar.
* Auto Add SECRET_KEY: If no SECRET_KEY on settings, try to read SECRET_KEY from ./secret.txt , if no ./secret.txt generate a random string then write it to ./secret.txt and finally return it as SECRET_KEY.
* Auto Add django.contrib.humanize.
* Auto Add django.contrib.staticfiles.
* Auto Import get_list_or_404, render, redirect from django.shortcuts.
* Fixed Tests for new features.
* Support django-debug-toolbar 1.2.1
* Add importd-boilerplate hyperlink.
* Auto Add coffin/django-jinja.
* Added support for Django1.7 and Python3.4, removed support for python3.3.
* Added autoimport keyword argument, to control if views etc should be auto
* Added a blueprint like framework inspired from flask

0.2.9 - 10-Nov-2013

* there was a bug in previous release, d.dotslash() always returned the same
value if called before configuring django

0.2.8 - 10-Nov-2013

* integrated with speaklater(optional), if available, d.dotslash() can be used
before django is configured, returns a lazy string, which becomes
"available" after django has been configured. suitable for configuring
template dirs or static files etc.

0.2.7 - 4-Nov-2013

* db kwarg can now be a string or (string, dict), in later case dict would be
merged into dict returned by dj_database_url.parse(), to support extra
settings django allows eg OPTIONS, CONN_MAX_AGE[this one I particularly need
in every projct, and dont want to miss out on using dj_database_url]

0.2.6 - 4-Nov-2013

* support for django 1.6c1

0.2.5 - 4-Nov-2013

* now accepts db= kward when configuring, uses dj_database_url to parse db

0.2.4 - 4-Nov-2013

* changes to serve admin static files

0.2.3 - 16-Aug-2013

* turns out importd depends on django :-)

0.2.2 - 12-Aug-2013

* support for django 1.3.7
* testing django 1.5.2, 1.4.6 now.

0.2.1 - 12-Aug-2013

* packaging was broken, thank you @jezdez

0.2.0 - 4-Aug-2013

There is a backward incompatible change in this release. importd has removed
atexit magic, which means a call to d.main() must be included somewhere.

.. code-block:: python

from importd import d

def hello(request):
return d.HttpResponse("hello world")

if __name__ == "__main__":
d.main() # NOTE THIS

* BACKWARD INCOMPATIBLE: remove atexit magic, d.main() is the replacement
* gunicorn cleanly exits now
* tests, support django 1.4.3 and 1.5.1 for each of python 2.6, 2.7 and 3.3
* less magic, no more sys.modules tweaking
* runserver now reloads when any file changes
* added auto generated (using check-manifest)
* added support for mounting urls to custom locations

0.1.4 - 22-Oct-2012

* was buggy

0.1.3 - 22-Oct-2012

* was buggy

0.1.2 - 13-Aug-2012

* few bug fixes, APP_DIR was calculated incorrectly
* automatically configure databases if DATABASES is not passed
* auto import .views and .forms of each installed app to give all
@d("pattern") decorators visibility
* auto import .signals in each app to allow signals to register themselve,
better than import them from explicitly and fighting the circular
imports issue

0.1.1 - 8-Aug-2012

* refactored out smarturls into a separate project

0.1.0 - 6-Aug-2012

Initial release.  
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