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langid 1.1.3dev

langid.py is a standalone Language Identification (LangID) tool.

Latest Version: 1.1.4dev

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langid.py readme
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Introduction
------------

langid.py is a standalone Language Identification (LangID) tool.

The design principles are as follows:

1. Fast
2. Pre-trained over a large number of languages (currently 97)
3. Not sensitive to domain-specific features (e.g. HTML/XML markup)
4. Single .py file with minimal dependencies
5. Deployable as a web service

All that is required to run langid.py is >= Python 2.5 and numpy.

langid.py comes pre-trained on 97 languages (ISO 639-1 codes given):

|  af, am, an, ar, as, az, be, bg, bn, br,
|  bs, ca, cs, cy, da, de, dz, el, en, eo,
|  es, et, eu, fa, fi, fo, fr, ga, gl, gu,
|  he, hi, hr, ht, hu, hy, id, is, it, ja,
|  jv, ka, kk, km, kn, ko, ku, ky, la, lb,
|  lo, lt, lv, mg, mk, ml, mn, mr, ms, mt,
|  nb, ne, nl, nn, no, oc, or, pa, pl, ps,
|  pt, qu, ro, ru, rw, se, si, sk, sl, sq,
|  sr, sv, sw, ta, te, th, tl, tr, ug, uk,
|  ur, vi, vo, wa, xh, zh, zu

The training data was drawn from 5 different sources:
- JRC-Acquis
- ClueWeb 09
- Wikipedia
- Reuters RCV2
- Debian i18n

langid.py is WSGI-compliant.

langid.py will use fapws3 as a web server if available, and default to
wsgiref.simple_server otherwise.

Usage
-----

:
Usage: langid.py [options]

Options:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -s, --serve           launch web service
  --host=HOST           host/ip to bind to
  --port=PORT           port to listen on
  -v                    increase verbosity (repeat for greater effect)
  -m MODEL              load model from file
  -l LANGS, --langs=LANGS
                        comma-separated set of target ISO639 language codes
                        (e.g en,de)
  -r, --remote          auto-detect IP address for remote access
  --demo                launch an in-browser demo application


The simplest way to use langid.py is as a command-line tool. Invoke using `python langid.py`.
This will cause a prompt to display. Enter text to identify, and hit enter::

  >>> This is a test
  ('en', 0.99999999099035441)
  >>> Questa e una prova
  ('it', 0.98569847366134222)

langid.py can also detect when the input is redirected (only tested under Linux), and in this
case will process until EOF rather than until newline like in interactive mode::

  python langid.py < readme.rst
  ('en', 1.0)

The value returned is the probability estimate for the language. Full estimation is
not actually necessary for classification, and can be disabled in the source code
of langid.py for a slight performance boost.

You can also use langid.py as a python library::

  # python
  Python 2.7.2+ (default, Oct  4 2011, 20:06:09)
  [GCC 4.6.1] on linux2
  Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
  >>> import langid
  >>> langid.classify("This is a test")
  ('en', 0.99999999099035441)

Finally, langid.py can use Python's built-in wsgiref.simple_server (or fapws3 if available) to
provide language identification as a web service. To do this, launch `python langid.py -s`, and
access localhost:9008/detect . The web service supports GET, POST and PUT. If GET is performed
with no data, a simple HTML forms interface is displayed.

The response is generated in JSON, here is an example::

  {"responseData": {"confidence": 0.99999999099035441, "language": "en"}, "responseDetails": null, "responseStatus": 200}

A utility such as curl can be used to access the web service::

  # curl -d "q=This is a test" localhost:9008/detect
  {"responseData": {"confidence": 0.99999999099035441, "language": "en"}, "responseDetails": null, "responseStatus": 200}

You can also use HTTP PUT::

  # curl -T readme.rst localhost:9008/detect
    % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time     Time  Current
                                 Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed
  100  2871  100   119  100  2752    117   2723  0:00:01  0:00:01 --:--:--  2727
  {"responseData": {"confidence": 1.0, "language": "en"}, "responseDetails": null, "responseStatus": 200}

If no "q=XXX" key-value pair is present in the HTTP POST payload, langid.py will interpret the entire
file as a single query. This allows for redirection via curl::

  # echo "This is a test" | curl -d @- localhost:9008/detect
  {"responseData": {"confidence": 0.99999999099035441, "language": "en"}, "responseDetails": null, "responseStatus": 200}

langid.py will attempt to discover the host IP address automatically. Often, this is set to localhost(127.0.1.1), even
though the machine has a different external IP address. langid.py can attempt to automatically discover the external
IP address. To enable this functionality, start langid.py with the "-r" flag.

langid.py supports constraining of the output language set using the "-l" flag and a comma-separated list of ISO639-1
language codes::

  # python langid.py -l it,fr
  >>> Io non parlo italiano
  ('it', 0.99999999988965627)
  >>> Je ne parle pas français
  ('fr', 1.0)
  >>> I don't speak english
  ('it', 0.92210605672341062)

When using langid.py as a library, the set_languages method can be used to constrain the language set::

  python
  Python 2.7.2+ (default, Oct  4 2011, 20:06:09)
  [GCC 4.6.1] on linux2
  Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
  >>> import langid
  >>> langid.classify("I do not speak english")
  ('en', 0.57133487679900674)
  >>> langid.set_languages(['de','fr','it'])
  >>> langid.classify("I do not speak english")
  ('it', 0.99999835791478453)
  >>> langid.set_languages(['en','it'])
  >>> langid.classify("I do not speak english")
  ('en', 0.99176190378750373)

Training a model
----------------
We provide a full set of training tools to train a model for langid.py on user-supplied data.
The system is parallelized to fully utilize modern multiprocessor machines, using a sharding
technique similar to MapReduce to allow parallelization while running in constant memory.

The process is now broken into 6 tools, each performing a specific task. This allows the user
to inspect the intermediates produced, and also allows for some parameter tuning without
repeating some of the more expensive steps in the computation. By far the most expensive step
is the computation of information gain, which will make up more than 90% of the total computation
time.

The tools are:

1) index.py  - index a corpus. Produce a list of file, corpus, language pairs.
2) tokenize.py - take an index and tokenize the corresponding files
3) DFfeatureselect.py - choose features by document frequency
3) IGweight.py - compute the IG weights for language and for domain
4) LDfeatureselect.py - take the IG weights and use them to select a feature set
5) scanner.py - build a scanner on the basis of a feature set
6) NBtrain.py - learn NB parameters using an indexed corpus and a scanner

The tools can be found in langid/train subfolder. The tools langid/train.py and
langid/LDfeatureselect.py are deprecated and will be removed at a later date.

Each tool can be called with '--help' as the only parameter to provide an overview of the
functionality.

To train a model, we require multiple corpora of monolingual documents. Each document should
be a single file, and each file should be in a 2-deep folder hierarchy, with language nested
within domain. For example, we may have a number of English files:

  ./corpus/domain1/en/File1.txt
  ./corpus/domainX/en/001-file.xml

To use default settings, very few parameters need to be provided. Given a corpus in the format
described above at './corpus', the following is an example set of invocations that would
result in a model being trained, with a brief description of what each step does:

To build a list of training documents:

    python index.py ./corpus

This will create a directory 'corpus.model', and produces a list of paths to documents in the
corpus, with their associated language and domain.

We then tokenize the files using the default byte n-gram tokenizer:

    python tokenize.py corpus.model

This runs each file through the tokenizer, tabulating the frequency of each token according
to language and domain. This information is distributed into buckets according to a hash
of the token, such that all the counts for any given token will be in the same bucket.

The next step is to identify the most frequent tokens by document frequency:

    python DFfeatureselect.py corpus.model

This sums up the frequency counts per token in each bucket, and produces a list of the highest-df
tokens for use in the IG calculation stage. Note that this implementation of DFfeatureselect
assumes byte n-gram tokenization, and will thus select a fixed number of features per ngram order.
If tokenization is replaced with a word-based tokenizer, this should be replaced accordingly.

We then compute the IG weights of each of the top features by DF. This is computed separately
for domain and for language:

    python IGweight.py -d corpus.model
    python IGweight.py -lb corpus.model

Based on the IG weights, we compute the LD score for each token:

    python LDfeatureselect.py corpus.model

This produces the final list of LD features to use for building the NB model.

We then assemble the scanner:

    python scanner.py corpus.model

The scanner is a compiled DFA over the set of features that can be used to count the number of times
each of the features occurs in a document in a single pass over the document.

Finally, we learn the actual NB parameters:

    python NBtrain.py corpus.model

This performs a second pass over the entire corpus, tokenizing it with the scanner from the previous
step, and computing the Naive Bayes parameters P(C) and p(t|C). It then compiles the parameters
and the scanner into a model compatible with langid.py.

In this example, the final model will be at the following path:

  ./corpus.model/model

This model can then be used in langid.py by invoking it with the '-m' command-line option as
follows:

    python langid.py -m ./corpus.model/model

It is also possible to edit langid.py directly to embed the new model string.


Read more
---------
langid.py is based on our published research. [1] describes the LD feature selection technique in detail,
and [2] provides more detail about the module langid.py itself.

[1] Lui, Marco and Timothy Baldwin (2011) Cross-domain Feature Selection for Language Identification,
In Proceedings of the Fifth International Joint Conference on Natural Language Processing (IJCNLP 2011),
Chiang Mai, Thailand, pp. 553—561. Available from http://www.aclweb.org/anthology/I11-1062

[2] Lui, Marco and Timothy Baldwin (2012) langid.py: An Off-the-shelf Language Identification Tool,
In Proceedings of the 50th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL 2012),
Demo Session, Jeju, Republic of Korea.

Contact
-------
Marco Lui <saffsd@gmail.com> http://www.csse.unimelb.edu.au/~mlui

Acknowledgements
----------------
Thanks to aitzol for help with packaging langid.py for PyPI.

Changelog
---------
v1.0:
  * Initial release

v1.1:
  * Reorganized internals to implement a LanguageIdentifier class

v1.1.2:
  * Added a 'langid' entry point

v1.1.3:
  * Made `classify` and `rank` return Python data types rather than numpy ones
 
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