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orpyste 1.3.1b0

orPyste is a tool to store and read simple structured datas in TXT files using a human efficient syntax.

What about this package ?

orPyste, which is an anagram of pyStore, has been built to make easy to work with textual datas easy stored in a text file.

*If you want more informations and examples than thereafter, just take a look in the docstrings.*

What’s new in this version 1.3.1-beta ?

Sections and comments can’t no longer be indented (indeed for sections this feature was a bug).

What’s new in this version 1.3.0-beta ?

One useful new feature : you can now aggregate different virtual ¨peuf files inside a single physical one using sections.

What was new in the preceding version 1.2.0-beta ?

There are some important changes in this version.

  1. The mode multikeyval, for repeatable keys in the same block, has been totally implemented.
  2. You can now use a context manager with the classes Read, ReadBlock and Clean. By using with ... as ...:, you let the package calls for you the methods build and remove_extras (this last method had name “remove“ before).
  3. The class ReadBlock no longer has the methods flatdict and recudict. Instead, it has two properties flatdict and treedict that allow to work with dict like variables. For customized dictionaries, you can use the new method mydict.
  4. The old method rtu_datas of the class Infos has been replaced by the property rtu which outputs are easier to “understand”, and there is also an iterator yrtu to work with the “same” kind of datas with the classes Read and ReadBlock.

I beg your pardon for my english…

English is not my native language, so be nice if you notice misunderstandings, misspellings or grammatical errors in my documents and my codes.

Why yet another tiny language to store textual datas ?

The package orpyste was born from a need to quickly write simple and structured datas to configuration files and for unit tests. Before getting into the details, here is a small example of an orpyste file storing informations on players. Sorry for the lack of originality …

joueur_1::
    date  = 1985
    sexe  = masculin
    score = 18974
    alias = Super Mario

joueur_2::
    date  = 1991
    sexe  = féminin
    score = 32007
    alias = Sonic

Writing this with XML could be done like this :

<joueur_1 date="1985"
          sexe="masculin"
          score="18974"
          alias="Super Mario"/>

<joueur_2 date="1991"
          sexe="féminin"
          score="32007"
          alias="Sonic"/>

Using JSON, we could use the following variable.

{
    "joueur_1": {
        "date": "1985",
        "sexe": "masculin",
        "score": "18974",
        "alias": "Super Mario",
    },
    "joueur_2": {
        "date": "1991",
        "sexe": "féminin",
        "score": "32007",
        "alias": "Sonic",
    }
}

As you can see, for simple datas, orpyste gives a very simple and efficient way to store informations.

How to write files readable by orpyste ?

The specification of the files readable by orpyste is named peuf. So the question becomes : “What is a well formatted “peuf“ file ?”. To answer this, let’s look at the following example.

/*
Long comment: here, we use the first block as a container.

Note the use of two consecutive double points so as to indicate a block.
*/
book::
// Short comment: then the block `general` uses a key-value storing.
    general::
        author = M. Nobody
        title  = Does this book have a title ?
        date   = 2012, May the 1st

// Short comment: the last block `resume` uses a verbatim content.
    resume::
        This book is an ode to the passing time...


////

Let’s explain the content of the preceding example.

  1. You can comment your peuf files using C-like comments but a comment can only start at the very beginning of a line.
  2. Datas are structured in blocks which can be of three different kinds.
    • A block is indicated using two consecutive double points and its content is indented.
    • A block can be a container like the block book. This is for gathering different blocks.
    • The block general stores key-value datas with the possibility to choose the separators. Here we have used “=“ but it is not an obligation. You can also choose to allow or not multiple use of the same key.
    • The last kind of blocks is for a verbatim content. The last empty lines are removed except if you use the magic comment //// as we have done. In our example the block resume has a content made of This book is an ode to the passing time... followed by two empty lines.

Reading the datas line by line

Let’s consider the following file where book is a container, general is a classical key-value content using the separator = and resume has a verbatim content.

book::
    general::
        author = M. Nobody
        title  = Does this book have a title ?
        date   = 2012, May the 1st

    resume::
        This book is an ode to the passing time...
        A challenging thinking.

Let’s suppose that user/example.peuf is the path of our storing file. Using the following code shows how to read our datas.

from pathlib import Path
import pprint

from orpyste.data import Read

with Read(
    content = Path("user/example.peuf"),
    mode    = {
        "container" : ":default:",
        "keyval:: =": "general",
        "verbatim"  : "resume"
    }
) as datas:
    for onedata in datas:
        if onedata.isblock():
            print('--- {0} ---'.format(onedata.querypath))
        elif onedata.isdata():
            pprint.pprint(onedata.rtu)

Launching in a terminal, the script will produce the following output where you can note that a “querypath” like book/general indicates that the block general is inside the block book.

--- book/general ---
(4, 'author', '=', 'M. Nobody')
(5, 'title', '=', 'Does this book have a title ?')
(6, 'date', '=', '2012, May the 1st')
--- book/resume ---
(9, 'This book is an ode to the passing time...')
(10, 'A challenging thinking.')

You can see that verbatim contents are given line by line, and that the separator between one key and its value is always indicated. This last behavior is due to the fact that you can use different separators if you want. The number of lines in the original content are always given so as to let other applications the possibility to use them for messages.

Let’s see another example with the following data file.

logic::
    A <==> B
    A ==> B
    A <== P

This file is easy to read with the code above where mode = "multikeyval:: <==> <== ==>" is a shortcut for mode = {"multikeyval:: <==> <== ==>": ":default:"}. This setting allows multiple uses of the same key.

from pathlib import Path
import pprint

from orpyste.data import Read

with Read(
    content = Path("user/example.peuf"),
    mode    = "multikeyval:: <==> <== ==>"
) as datas:
    for onedata in datas:
        if onedata.isblock():
            print('--- {0} ---'.format(onedata.querypath))
        elif onedata.isdata():
            pprint.pprint(onedata.rtu)

The output below shows the necessity here to always have the separators.

--- logic ---
(3, 'A', '<==>', 'B')
(4, 'A', '==>', 'B')
(5, 'A', '<==', 'P')

Reading the datas block by block

We go back to our second example with the following file whose path is user/example.peuf.

book::
    general::
        author = M. Nobody
        title  = What is the title ?
        date   = 2012, May the 1st

    resume::
        This book is an ode to the passing time...
        A challenging thinking.

The class ReadBlock is a subclass of Read so you can use any methods working with Read. But the goal of ReadBlock is to work with dictionaries instead of reading datas line by line (for large files this last choice is a better one). Let’s see first the property flatdict.

from pathlib import Path

from orpyste.data import ReadBlock

with ReadBlock(
    content = Path("user/example.peuf"),
    mode    = {
        "container" : ":default:",
        "keyval:: =": "general",
        "verbatim"  : "resume"
    }
) as datas:
    print(datas.flatdict)

The code launched in one terminal gives us the following output (which has been hand formatted).

MKOrderedDict([
    (id=0,
     key='book/general',
     value=MKOrderedDict([
        (id=0,
         key='author',
         value={'nbline': 4, 'value': 'M. Nobody', 'sep': '='}),
        (id=0,
         key='title',
         value={'nbline': 5, 'value': 'What is the title ?', 'sep': '='}),
        (id=0,
         key='date',
         value={'nbline': 6, 'value': '2012, May the 1st', 'sep': '='})
     ])
    ),
    (id=0,
     key='book/resume',
     value=(
        {'nbline': 9, 'value': 'This book is an ode to the passing time...'},
        {'nbline': 10, 'value': 'A challenging thinking.'})
    )
])

As you can see, the keys are “querypaths” and the values are the datas. You can also use the property treedict which produces a dictionary with a structure similar to the one of the blocks in the content analyzed. The following code is merly the same as the previous one (“[…]“ indicates the first lines of the preceding code).

[...]

with ReadBlock(...) as datas:
    print(datas.treedict)

Here are the dictionary produced (the ouput has been hand formatted).

RecuOrderedDict([
    ('book',
     RecuOrderedDict([
        ('general',
         RecuOrderedDict([
            ('author',
             {'nbline': 4, 'sep': '=', 'value': 'M. Nobody'}),
            ('title',
             {'nbline': 5, 'sep': '=', 'value': 'What is the title ?'}),
            ('date',
             {'nbline': 6, 'sep': '=', 'value': '2012, May the 1st'})
         ])
        ),
        ('resume',
         (
            {'nbline': 9,
             'value': 'This book is an ode to the passing time...'},
            {'nbline': 10,
             'value': 'A challenging thinking.'}
         )
        )
     ])
    )
])

If you want to customize a little the dictionary build by ReadBlock, you can use the method mydict like in the following example (see the “docstrings” for more informations).

[...]

with ReadBlock(...) as datas:
    print('--- Standard "flat" dict ---')
    print(datas.mydict("std nosep nonb"))

    print('--- Standard "tree" dict ---')
    print(datas.mydict("tree std nosep nonb"))

We obtain here two standard dictionaries with neither separators, nor number lines.

--- Standard "flat" dict ---
{
    'book/general': {
        'author': 'M. Nobody',
        'date': '2012, May the 1st',
        'title': 'Does this book have a title ?'
    },
    'book/resume': (
        'This book is an ode to the passing time...'
        'A challenging thinking.'
    )
}
--- Standard "tree" dict ---
{
    'book': {
        'general': {
            'author': 'M. Nobody',
            'date': '2012, May the 1st',
            'title': 'Does this book have a title ?'
        },
        'resume': (
            'This book is an ode to the passing time...',
            'A challenging thinking.'
        )
    }
}

Searching for blocks

Here we consider the following file whose path remains equal to user/example.peuf.

main::
    test::
        a = 1 + 9
        b <>  2
        c = 3 and 4

    sub_main::
        sub_sub_main::
            verb::
                line 1
                    line 2
                        line 3

The classes Read and ReadBlock allow to search for data blocks using queries on “querypaths”. The special syntax to use tries to catch the best of the Python regex and the Unix-glob syntaxes. Take a look at the documentation of the function data.regexify for details. The following examples give some examples of queries.

from pathlib import Path

from orpyste.data import Read

with Read(
    content = Path("user/example.peuf"),
    mode    = {
        "container"    : ":default:",
        "keyval:: = <>": "test",
        "verbatim"     : "verb"
    }
) as datas:
    for query in [
        "main/test",    # Only one path
        "**",           # Anything
        "main/*",       # Anything "contained" inside "main"
    ]:
        title = "Query: {0}".format(query)
        hrule = "="*len(title)

        print("", hrule, title, hrule, sep = "\n")

        for oneinfo in datas[query]:
            if oneinfo.isblock():
                print(
                    "",
                    "--- {0} [{1}] ---".format(
                        oneinfo.querypath,
                        oneinfo.mode
                    ),
                    sep = "\n"
                )

            else:
                for data_rtu in onedata.yrtu():
                    print(data_rtu)

This gives the following outputs as expected.

================
Query: main/test
================

--- main/test [keyval] ---
(4, 'a', '=', '1 + 9')
(5, 'b', '<>', '2')
(6, 'c', '=', '3 and 4')

=========
Query: **
=========

--- main/test [keyval] ---
(4, 'a', '=', '1 + 9')
(5, 'b', '<>', '2')
(6, 'c', '=', '3 and 4')

--- main/sub_main/sub_sub_main/verb [verbatim] ---
(11, 'line 1')
(12, '    line 2')
(13, '        line 3')

=============
Query: main/*
=============

--- main/test [keyval] ---
(4, 'a', '=', '1 + 9')
(5, 'b', '<>', '2')
(6, 'c', '=', '3 and 4')

Storing your datas in a json variable

The class ReadBlock has a method forjson that allows to store your datas in a json file (the storing has to be done by you). The following code will give us just after the structure used.

from orpyste.data import ReadBlock

content = '''
main::
    test::
        a = 1 + 9
        b <>  2
        c = 3 and 4

    sub_main::
        sub_sub_main::
            verb::
                line 1
                    line 2
                        line 3
'''

with ReadBlock(
    content = content,
    mode    = {
        "container"    : ":default:",
        "keyval:: = <>": "test",
        "verbatim"     : "verb"
    }
) as datas:
    jsonobj = datas.forjson
    print(jsonobj)

Launched in a terminal, we obtain the following output which has been hand formatted. As you can see, we use the format [key, value] so as to store the keys and the values of the python dictionary given by the method ReadBlock.flatdict and ReadBlock.recudict. You can also note that for verbatim content we use a null key (this is to ease other applications to extract informations from a “symmetric” “json“ variable).

[
    [
        [0, "main/test"],
        [
            [
                [0, "a"],
                {"nbline": 4, "sep": "=", "value": "1 + 9"}
            ],
            [
                [0, "b"],
                {"nbline": 5, "sep": "<>", "value": "2"}
            ],
            [
                [0, "c"],
                {"nbline": 6, "sep": "=", "value": "3 and 4"}
            ]
        ]
    ],
    [
        [0, "main/sub_main/sub_sub_main/verb"],
        [
            null,
            [
                {"nbline": 11, "value": "line 1"},
                {"nbline": 12, "value": "    line 2"},
                {"nbline": 13, "value": "        line 3"}
            ]
        ]
    ]
]

You can easily go back to the python dictionary thanks to the function loadjson that transforms one json variable stored in one string or in a file into a flat dictionary that is an instance of the class ReadBlock.MKOrderedDict.

How to use sections ?

The following partial snippet shows how to use sections which allow to work with virtual files containing classical peuf contents indicating by ... here.

==
Section 1
==

...


==
Section 2 after the section 1
==

...

Above we have used minimal forms for naming sections using only two equal signs. You can use more signs and maybe you would prefer the following convention.

=========
Section 1
=========

...


=============================
Section 2 after the section 1
=============================

...

Working with this kind of peuf files needs to import Read or ReadBlock from orpyste.section instead of orpyste.data.

For querypaths and also json representations, the sections are indicated by putting their name inside <...>.

 
File Type Py Version Uploaded on Size
orpyste-1.3.1b0-py3-none-any.whl (md5) Python Wheel py3 2017-08-08 48KB
orpyste-1.3.1b0-py3.5.egg (md5) Python Egg 3.5 2017-08-08 86KB
orpyste-1.3.1b0.tar.gz (md5) Source 2017-08-08 50KB