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plone.z3cform 0.8.0

plone.z3cform is a library that allows use of z3c.form with Zope 2 and the CMF.

plone.z3cform is a library that enables the use of z3c.form in Zope 2. It depends only on Zope 2 and z3c.form.

For Plone integration, there is also plone.app.z3cform, which can be installed to make the default form templates more Ploneish. That package pulls in this one as a dependency.

In addition to pure interoperability support, a few patterns which are useful in Zope 2 applications are implemented here.

Installation

To use this package, simply install it as a dependency of the package where you are using forms, via the install_requires line in setup.py. Then loads its configuration via ZCML:

<include package="plone.z3cform" />

Standalone forms

If you are using Zope 2.12 or later, z3c.form forms will almost work out of the box. However, two obstacles remain:

  • The standard file upload data converter does not work with Zope 2, so fields (like zope.schema.Bytes) using the file widget will not work correctly.
  • z3c.form expects request values to be decoded to unicode strings by the publisher, which does not happen in Zope 2.

To address the first problem, this package provides an override for the standard data converter adapter (registered on the zope.schema.Bytes class directly, so as to override the default, which is registered for the less general IBytes interface). To address the second, it applies a monkey patch to the update() methods of BaseForm and GroupForm from z3c.form which performs the necessary decoding in a way that is consistent with the Zope 3-style publisher.

Note: If you override update() in your own form you must either call the base class version or call the function plone.z3cform.z2.processInputs() on the request before any values in the request are used. For example:

from plone.z3cform.z2 import processInputs
from z3c.form import form

...

class MyForm(form.Form):

    ...

    def update(self):
        processInputs(self.request)
        ...

Other than that, you can create a form using standard z3c.form conventions. For example:

from zope.interface import Interface
from zope import schema
from z3c.form import form, button

class IMyFormSchema(Interface):
    field1 = schema.TextLine(title=u"A field")
    field2 = schema.Int(title=u"Another field")

class MyForm(form.Form):
    fields = field.Fields(IMyformSchema)

    @button.buttonAndHandler(u'Submit')
    def handleApply(self, action):
        data, errors = self.extractData()
        # do something

You can register this as a view in ZCML using the standard <browser:page /> directive:

<browser:page
    for="*"
    name="my-form"
    class=".forms.MyForm"
    permission="zope2.View"
    />

A default template will be used to render the form. If you want to associate a custom template, you should do so by setting the template class variable instead of using the template attribute of the ZCML directive:

from Products.Five.browser.pagetemplatefile import ViewPageTemplateFile

class MyForm(form.Form):
    fields = field.Fields(IMyformSchema)
    template = ViewPageTemplateFile('mytemplate.pt')

    @button.buttonAndHandler(u'Submit')
    def handleApply(self, action):
        data, errors = self.extractData()
        # do something

See below for more details about standard form macros.

Note that to render any of the standard widgets, you will also need to make sure the request is marked with z3c.form.interfaces.IFormLayer, as is the norm with z3c.form. If you install plone.app.z3cform in Plone, that is already done for you, but in other scenarios, you will need to do this in whichever way Zope browser layers are normally applied.

Layout form wrapper

In versions of Zope prior to 2.12, z3c.form instances cannot be registered as views directly, because they do not support Zope 2 security (via the acquisition mechanism). Whilst it may be possible to support this via custom mix-ins, the preferred approach is to use a wrapper view, which separates the rendering of the form from the page layout.

There are a few other reasons why you may want to use the wrapper view, even in later versions of Zope:

  • To support both an earlier version of Zope and Zope 2.12+
  • To re-use the same form in multiple views or viewlets
  • To use the IPageTemplate adapter lookup semantics from z3c.form to provide a different default or override template for the overall page layout, while retaining (or indeed customising independently) the default layout of the form.

When using the wrapper view, you do not need to ensure your requests are marked with IFormLayer, as it is applied automatically during the rendering of the wrapper view.

The easiest way to create a wrapper view is to call the wrap_form() function:

from zope.interface import Interface
from zope import schema
from z3c.form import form, button

from plone.z3cform import layout

class IMyFormSchema(Interface):
    field1 = schema.TextLine(title=u"A field")
    field2 = schema.Int(title=u"Another field")

class MyForm(form.Form):
    fields = field.Fields(IMyformSchema)

    @button.buttonAndHandler(u'Submit')
    def handleApply(self, action):
        data, errors = self.extractData()
        # do something

MyFormView = layout.wrap_form(MyForm)

You can now register the (generated) MyFormView class as a browser view:

<browser:page
    for="*"
    name="my-form"
    class=".forms.MyFormView"
    permission="zope2.View"
    />

If you want to have more control, you can define the wrapper class manually. You should derive from the default version to get the correct semantics. The following is equivalent to the wrap_form() call above:

class MyFormView(layout.FormWrapper):
    form = MyForm

You can of then add additional methods to the class, use a custom page template, and so on.

The default FormWrapper class exposes a few methods and properties:

  • update() is called to prepare the request and then update the wrapped form.
  • render() is called to render the wrapper view. If a template has been set (normally via the template attribute of the <browser:page /> directive), it will be rendered here. Otherwise, a default page template is found by adapting the view (self) and the request to zope.pagetemplate.interfaces.IPageTemplate, in the same way that z3c.form does for its views. A default template is supplied with this package (and customised in plone.app.z3cform to achieve a standard Plone look and feel).
  • form is a class variable referring to the form class, as set above.
  • form_instance is an instance variable set to the current form instance once the view has been initialised.

When a form is rendered in a wrapper view, the form instance is temporarily marked with plone.z3cform.interfaces.IWrappedForm (unless the form is a subform), to allow custom adapter registrations. Specifically, this is used to ensure that a form rendered "standalone" gets a full-page template applied, while a form rendered in a wrapper is rendered using a template that renders the form elements only.

Default templates and macros

Several standard templates are provided with this package. These are all registered as adapters from (view, request) to IPageTemplate, as is the convention in z3c.form. It therefore follows that these defaults can be customised with an adapter override, e.g. for a specific browser layer. This is useful if you want to override the standard rendering of all forms. If you just want to provide a custom template for a particular form or wrapper view, you can specify a template directly on the form or view, as shown above.

  • templates/layout.pt is the default template for the layout wrapper view. It uses the CMFDefault main_template and fills the header slot.
  • templates/wrappedform.pt is the default template for wrapped forms. It renders the titlelessform macro from the @@ploneform-macros view.
  • templates/subform.pt is the default template for sub-forms. It uses the macros in @@ploneform-macros view to render a heading, top/bottom content (verbatim) and the fields and actions of the subform (but does not) render the <form /> tag itself.
  • templates/form.pt is the default template for a standalone form. It uses the macro context/@@standard_macros/page (supplied by Five and normally delegating to CMF's main_template) to render a form where the form label is the page heading.

As hinted, this package also registers a view @@ploneform-macros, which contains a set of macros that be used to construct forms with a standard layout, error message display, and so on. It contains the following macros:

  • form is a full page form, including the label (output as an <h3 />), description, and all the elements of titlelessform. It defines two slots: title contains the label, and description contains the description.
  • titlelessform includes the form status at the top, the <form /> element, and the contents of the fields and actions macros. It also defines four slots: formtop is just inside the opening <form> tag; formbottom` is just inside the closing </form> tag; fields contains the fields macro; and actions contains the actions macro.
  • fields iterates over all widgets in the form and renders each, using the contents of the field macro. It also defines one slot, field which contains the field macro.
  • field renders a single field. It expects the variable widget to be defined in the TAL scope, referring to a z3c.form widget instance. It will output an error message if there is a field validation error, a label, a marker to say whether the field is required, the field description, and the widget itself (normally just an <input /> element).
  • actions renders all actions (buttons) on the form. This normally results in a row of <input type="submit" ... /> elements.

Thus, to use the titlelessform macro, you could add something like the following in a custom form template:

<metal:use use-macro="context/@@ploneform-macros/titlelessform" />

Note that all of the templates mentioned above are customised by plone.app.z3cform to use standard Plone markup (but still retain the same macros), so if you are using that package to configure this one, you should look for the Plone-specific versions there.

Template factories

If you want to provide an IPageTemplate adapter to customise the default page template used for wrapper views, forms or sub-forms, this package provides helper classes to create an adapter factory for that purpose. You should use these instead of z3c.form.form.FormTemplateFactory and (possibly) z3c.form.widget.WidgetTemplateFactory to get page templates with Zope 2 semantics. These factories are also Chameleon aware, if you have five.pt installed.

The most commonly used factory is plone.z3cform.templates.ZopeTwoFormTemplateFactory, which can be used to render a wrapper view or a standalone form.

To render a wrapped form, you can use plone.z3cform.templates.FormTemplateFactory, which is closer to the default z3c.form version, but adds Chameleon-awareness.

To render a widget, the default WidgetTemplateFactory from z3c.form should suffice, but if you need Zope 2 semantics for any reason, you can use plone.z3cform.templates.ZopeTwoWidgetTemplateFactory.

As an example, here are the default registrations from this package:

import z3c.form.interfaces
import plone.z3cform.interfaces

from plone.z3cform.templates import ZopeTwoFormTemplateFactory
from plone.z3cform.templates import FormTemplateFactory

path = lambda p: os.path.join(os.path.dirname(plone.z3cform.__file__), 'templates', p)

layout_factory = ZopeTwoFormTemplateFactory(path('layout.pt'),
    form=plone.z3cform.interfaces.IFormWrapper
)

wrapped_form_factory = FormTemplateFactory(path('wrappedform.pt'),
        form=plone.z3cform.interfaces.IWrappedForm,
    )

# Default templates for the standalone form use case

standalone_form_factory = ZopeTwoFormTemplateFactory(path('form.pt'),
        form=z3c.form.interfaces.IForm
    )

subform_factory = FormTemplateFactory(path('subform.pt'),
        form=z3c.form.interfaces.ISubForm
    )

These are registered in ZCML like so:

<!-- Form templates for wrapped layout use case -->
<adapter factory=".templates.layout_factory" />
<adapter factory=".templates.wrapped_form_factory" />

<!-- Form templates for standalone form use case -->
<adapter factory=".templates.standalone_form_factory" />
<adapter factory=".templates.subform_factory" />

The widget traverser

It is sometimes useful to be able to register a view on a widget and be able to traverse to that view, for example during a background AJAX request. As an example of widget doing this, see plone.formwidget.autocomplete.

This package provides a ++widget++ namespace traversal adapter which can be used for this purpose. It is looked up on either the form wrapper view, or the form itself (in the case of standalone) forms. Thus, if you have a form view called @@my-form, with a field called myfield, you could traverse to the widget for that view using:

http://example.com/@@my-form/++widget++myfield

The widget may be on the form itself, or in a group (fieldset). If it exists in multiple groups, the first one found will be used.

The example above will yield widget, but it is probably not publishable. You would therefore commonly register a view on the widget itself and use that. In this case, self.context in the view is the widget instance. Such a view could be looked up with:

http://example.com/@@my-form/++widget++myfield/@@some-view

A caveat about security

In Zope 2.12 and later, the security machinery is aware of __parent__ pointers. Thus, traversal and authorisation on @@some-view in the example above will work just fine for a standard widget. In earlier versions of Zope, you will need to mix acquisition into your widget (which rules out using any of the standard z3c.form widgets). For example:

from Acquisition import Explicit
from z3c.form.widget import Widget

class MyWidget(Widget, Explicit):
    ...

Unfortunately, in Zope 2.12, this will cause some problems during traversal unless you also mix acquisition into the view you registered on the widget (@@some-view above). Specifically, you will get an error as the publisher tries to wrap the view in the widget.

To stay compatible with both Zope 2.12+ and earlier versions, you have two options:

  • Ensure that you mix acquisition into the view on the widget
  • Ensure that the widget inherits from Explicit, but does not provide the IAcquirer interface. This tricks the publisiher into relying on __parent__ pointers in Zope 2.12.

To do the latter, you can use implementsOnly(), e.g.:

from zope.interface import implementsOnly
from Acquisition import Explicit
from z3c.form.widget import Widget

...

class MyWidget(Widget, Explicit):
    implementsOnly(IMyWidget) # or just IWdget from z3c.form
    ...

Fieldsets and form extenders

The plone.z3cform.fieldsets package provides support for z3c.form groups (fieldsets) and other modifications via "extender" adapters. The idea is that a third party component can modify the fields in the form and the way that they are grouped and ordered.

This support relies on a mixin class, which is itself a subclass of z3c.form's GroupForm.

>>> from plone.z3cform.fieldsets import group, extensible

To use this, you have to mix it into another form as the first base class:

>>> from zope.annotation import IAttributeAnnotatable
>>> from z3c.form import form, field, tests, group
>>> from zope.interface import Interface, implements
>>> from zope import schema
>>> class ITest(Interface):
...     title = schema.TextLine(title=u"Title")
>>> class Test(object):
...     # avoid needing an acl_users for this test in Zope 2.10
...     __allow_access_to_unprotected_subobjects__ = 1
...     implements(ITest, IAttributeAnnotatable)
...     title = u""
...     def getPhysicalRoot(self): # needed for template to acquire REQUEST in Zope 2.10
...         return self
>>> class TestForm(extensible.ExtensibleForm, form.Form):
...     fields = field.Fields(ITest)

Here, note the order of the base classes. Also note that we use an ordinary set of fields directly on the form. This known as the default fieldset.

This form should work as-is, i.e. we can update it. First we need to fake a request.

>>> from plone.z3cform.tests import TestRequest
>>> request = TestRequest()
>>> request.other = {}
>>> context = Test()
>>> context.REQUEST = request
>>> form = TestForm(context, request)
>>> try: # Zope 2.10 templates need a proper acquisition chain
...     from Acquisition import ImplicitAcquisitionWrapper
...     form = ImplicitAcquisitionWrapper(form, context)
... except:
...     pass
>>> form.update()
>>> _ = form.render()

Now let's register an adapter that adds two new fields - one in the default fieldset as the first field, and one in a new group. To do this, we only need to register a named multi-adapter. However, we can use a convenience base class to make it easier to manipulate the fields of the form.

>>> from plone.z3cform.fieldsets.interfaces import IFormExtender
>>> from zope.component import adapts, provideAdapter
>>> class IExtraBehavior(Interface):
...     foo = schema.TextLine(title=u"Foo")
...     bar = schema.TextLine(title=u"Bar")
...     baz = schema.TextLine(title=u"Baz")
...     fub = schema.TextLine(title=u"Fub")
...     qux = schema.TextLine(title=u"Qux")

One plausible implementation is to use an annotation to store this data.

>>> from zope.annotation import factory
>>> from zope.annotation.attribute import AttributeAnnotations
>>> from persistent import Persistent
>>> class ExtraBehavior(Persistent):
...     implements(IExtraBehavior)
...     adapts(Test)
...
...     foo = u""
...     bar = u""
...     baz = u""
...     fub = u""
...     qux = u""
>>> ExtraBehavior = factory(ExtraBehavior)
>>> provideAdapter(ExtraBehavior)
>>> provideAdapter(AttributeAnnotations)

We can now write the extender. The base class gives us some helper methods to add, remove and move fields. Here, we do a bit of unnecessary work just to exercise these methods.

>>> class ExtraBehaviorExtender(extensible.FormExtender):
...     adapts(Test, TestRequest, TestForm) # context, request, form
...
...     def __init__(self, context, request, form):
...         self.context = context
...         self.request = request
...         self.form = form
...
...     def update(self):
...         # Add all fields from an interface
...         self.add(IExtraBehavior, prefix="extra")
...
...         # Remove the fub field
...         self.remove('fub', prefix="extra")
...
...         all_fields = field.Fields(IExtraBehavior, prefix="extra")
...
...         # Insert fub again, this time at the top
...         self.add(all_fields.select("fub", prefix="extra"), index=0)
...
...         # Move 'baz' above 'fub'
...         self.move('baz', before='fub', prefix='extra', relative_prefix='extra')
...
...         # Move 'foo' after 'bar' - here we specify prefix manually
...         self.move('foo', after='extra.bar', prefix='extra')
...
...         # Remove 'bar' and re-insert into a new group
...         self.remove('bar', prefix='extra')
...         self.add(all_fields.select('bar', prefix='extra'), group='Second')
...
...         # Move 'baz' after 'bar'. This means it also moves group.
...         self.move('extra.baz', after='extra.bar')
...
...         # Remove 'qux' and re-insert into 'Second' group,
...         # then move it before 'baz'
...         self.remove('qux', prefix='extra')
...         self.add(all_fields.select('qux', prefix='extra'), group='Second')
...         self.move('qux', before='baz', prefix='extra', relative_prefix='extra')
>>> provideAdapter(factory=ExtraBehaviorExtender, name=u"test.extender")

With this in place, let's update the form once again.

>>> form = TestForm(context, request)
>>> form.update()

At this point, we should have a set of default fields that represent the ones set in the adapter.

>>> form.fields.keys()
['extra.fub', 'title', 'extra.foo']

And we should have one group created by the group factory:

>>> form.groups # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
(<plone.z3cform.fieldsets.group.Group object at ...>,)

Note that the created group is of a subtype of the standard z3c.form group, which has got support for a separate label and description as well as a canonical name.

>>> isinstance(form.groups[0], group.Group)
True

This should have the group fields provided by the adapter as well.

>>> form.groups[0].fields.keys()
['extra.bar', 'extra.qux', 'extra.baz']

CRUD (Create, Read, Update and Delete) forms

This module provides an abstract base class to create CRUD forms. By default, such forms provide a tabular view of multiple objects, whose attributes can be edited in-place.

Please refer to the ICrudForm interface for more details.

>>> from plone.z3cform.crud import crud

Setup

>>> from plone.z3cform.tests import setup_defaults
>>> setup_defaults()

A simple form

First, let's define an interface and a class to play with:

>>> from zope import interface, schema
>>> class IPerson(interface.Interface) :
...     name = schema.TextLine()
...     age = schema.Int()
>>> class Person(object):
...     interface.implements(IPerson)
...     def __init__(self, name=None, age=None):
...         self.name, self.age = name, age
...     def __repr__(self):
...         return "<Person with name=%r, age=%r>" % (self.name, self.age)

For this test, we take the the name of our persons as keys in our storage:

>>> storage = {'Peter': Person(u'Peter', 16),
...            'Martha': Person(u'Martha', 32)}

Our simple form looks like this:

>>> class MyForm(crud.CrudForm):
...     update_schema = IPerson
...
...     def get_items(self):
...         return sorted(storage.items(), key=lambda x: x[1].name)
...
...     def add(self, data):
...         person = Person(**data)
...         storage[str(person.name)] = person
...         return person
...
...     def remove(self, (id, item)):
...         del storage[id]

This is all that we need to render a combined edit add form containing all our items:

>>> from plone.z3cform.tests import TestRequest
>>> print MyForm(None, TestRequest())() \
... # doctest: +ELLIPSIS +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
<div class="crud-form">...Martha...Peter...</div>

Editing items with our form

Before we start with editing objects, let's log all events that the form fires for us:

>>> from zope.lifecycleevent.interfaces import IObjectModifiedEvent
>>> from plone.z3cform.tests import create_eventlog
>>> log = create_eventlog(IObjectModifiedEvent)
>>> request = TestRequest()
>>> request.form['crud-edit.Martha.widgets.select-empty-marker'] = u'1'
>>> request.form['crud-edit.Peter.widgets.select-empty-marker'] = u'1'
>>> request.form['crud-edit.Martha.widgets.name'] = u'Martha'
>>> request.form['crud-edit.Martha.widgets.age'] = u'55'
>>> request.form['crud-edit.Peter.widgets.name'] = u'Franz'
>>> request.form['crud-edit.Peter.widgets.age'] = u'16'
>>> request.form['crud-edit.form.buttons.edit'] = u'Apply changes'
>>> html = MyForm(None, request)()
>>> "Successfully updated" in html
True

Two modified events should have been fired:

>>> event1, event2 = log.pop(), log.pop()
>>> storage['Peter'] in (event1.object, event2.object)
True
>>> storage['Martha'] in (event1.object, event2.object)
True
>>> log
[]

If we don't make any changes, we'll get a message that says so:

>>> html = MyForm(None, request)()
>>> "No changes made" in html
True
>>> log
[]

Now that we renamed Peter to Franz, it would be also nice to have Franz use 'Franz' as the id in the storage, wouldn't it?

>>> storage['Peter']
<Person with name=u'Franz', age=16>

We can override the CrudForm's before_update method to perform a rename whenever the name of a person is changed:

>>> class MyRenamingForm(MyForm):
...     def before_update(self, item, data):
...         if data['name'] != item.name:
...             del storage[item.name]
...             storage[str(data['name'])] = item

Let's rename Martha to Maria. This will give her another key in our storage:

>>> request.form['crud-edit.Martha.widgets.name'] = u'Maria'
>>> html = MyRenamingForm(None, request)()
>>> "Successfully updated" in html
True
>>> log.pop().object == storage['Maria']
True
>>> log
[]
>>> sorted(storage.keys())
['Maria', 'Peter']

Next, we'll submit the form for edit, but we'll make no changes. Instead, we'll select one time. This shouldn't do anything, since we clicked the 'Apply changes' button:

>>> request.form['crud-edit.Maria.widgets.name'] = u'Maria'
>>> request.form['crud-edit.Maria.widgets.age'] = u'55'
>>> request.form['crud-edit.Maria.widgets.select'] = [u'selected']
>>> html = MyRenamingForm(None, request)()
>>> "No changes" in html
True
>>> log
[]

And what if we do have changes and click the checkbox?

>>> request.form['crud-edit.Maria.widgets.age'] = u'50'
>>> html = MyRenamingForm(None, request)()
>>> "Successfully updated" in html
True
>>> log.pop().object == storage['Maria']
True
>>> log
[]

If we omit the name, we'll get an error:

>>> request.form['crud-edit.Maria.widgets.name'] = u''
>>> html = MyRenamingForm(None, request)()
>>> "There were some errors" in html
True
>>> "Required input is missing" in html
True

We expect an error message in the title cell of Maria:

>>> checkbox_pos = html.index('crud-edit.Maria.widgets.select-empty-marker')
>>> "Required input is missing" in html[checkbox_pos:]
True

Delete an item with our form

We can delete an item by selecting the item we want to delete and clicking the "Delete" button:

>>> request = TestRequest()
>>> request.form['crud-edit.Peter.widgets.select'] = ['selected']
>>> request.form['crud-edit.form.buttons.delete'] = u'Delete'
>>> html = MyForm(None, request)()
>>> "Successfully deleted items" in html
True
>>> 'Franz' in html
False
>>> storage
{'Maria': <Person with name=u'Maria', age=50>}

Add an item with our form

>>> from zope.lifecycleevent.interfaces import IObjectCreatedEvent
>>> from plone.z3cform.tests import create_eventlog
>>> log = create_eventlog(IObjectCreatedEvent)
>>> request = TestRequest()
>>> request.form['crud-add.form.widgets.name'] = u'Daniel'
>>> request.form['crud-add.form.widgets.age'] = u'28'
>>> request.form['crud-add.form.buttons.add'] = u'Add'
>>> html = MyForm(None, request)()
>>> "Item added successfully" in html
True

Added items should show up right away:

>>> "Daniel" in html
True
>>> storage['Daniel']
<Person with name=u'Daniel', age=28>
>>> log.pop().object == storage['Daniel']
True
>>> log
[]

What if we try to add "Daniel" twice? Our current implementation of the add form will simply overwrite the data:

>>> save_daniel = storage['Daniel']
>>> html = MyForm(None, request)()
>>> "Item added successfully" in html
True
>>> save_daniel is storage['Daniel']
False
>>> log.pop().object is storage['Daniel']
True

Let's implement a class that prevents this:

>>> class MyCarefulForm(MyForm):
...     def add(self, data):
...         name = data['name']
...         if name not in storage:
...             return super(MyCarefulForm, self).add(data)
...         else:
...             raise schema.ValidationError(
...                 u"There's already an item with the name '%s'" % name)
>>> save_daniel = storage['Daniel']
>>> html = MyCarefulForm(None, request)()
>>> "Item added successfully" in html
False
>>> "There's already an item with the name 'Daniel'" in html
True
>>> save_daniel is storage['Daniel']
True
>>> len(log) == 0
True

Render some of the fields in view mode

We can implement in our form a view_schema attribute, which will then be used to view information in our form's table. Let's say we wanted the name of our persons to be viewable only in the table:

>>> from z3c.form import field
>>> class MyAdvancedForm(MyForm):
...     update_schema = field.Fields(IPerson).select('age')
...     view_schema = field.Fields(IPerson).select('name')
...     add_schema = IPerson
>>> print MyAdvancedForm(None, TestRequest())() \
... # doctest: +ELLIPSIS +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
<div class="crud-form">...Daniel...Maria...</div>

We can still edit the age of our Persons:

>>> request = TestRequest()
>>> request.form['crud-edit.Maria.widgets.age'] = u'40'
>>> request.form['crud-edit.Daniel.widgets.age'] = u'35'
>>> request.form['crud-edit.form.buttons.edit'] = u'Apply Changes'
>>> html = MyAdvancedForm(None, request)()
>>> "Successfully updated" in html
True
>>> storage['Maria'].age
40
>>> storage['Daniel'].age
35

We can still add a Person using both name and age:

>>> request = TestRequest()
>>> request.form['crud-add.form.widgets.name'] = u'Thomas'
>>> request.form['crud-add.form.widgets.age'] = u'28'
>>> request.form['crud-add.form.buttons.add'] = u'Add'
>>> html = MyAdvancedForm(None, request)()
>>> "Item added successfully" in html
True
>>> len(storage)
3
>>> storage['Thomas']
<Person with name=u'Thomas', age=28>

Our form can also contain links to our items:

>>> class MyAdvancedLinkingForm(MyAdvancedForm):
...     def link(self, item, field):
...         if field == 'name':
...             return 'http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%s' % item.name
>>> print MyAdvancedLinkingForm(None, TestRequest())() \
... # doctest: +ELLIPSIS +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
<div class="crud-form">...
...<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel"...
...<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria"...
...<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas"...
</div>

What if we wanted the name to be both used for linking to the item and for edit? We can just include the title field twice:

>>> class MyAdvancedLinkingForm(MyAdvancedLinkingForm):
...     update_schema = IPerson
...     view_schema = field.Fields(IPerson).select('name')
...     add_schema = IPerson
>>> print MyAdvancedLinkingForm(None, TestRequest())() \
... # doctest: +ELLIPSIS +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
<div class="crud-form">...
...<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas"...Thomas...</a>...
</div>

We can now change Thomas's name and see the change reflected in the Wikipedia link immediately:

>>> request = TestRequest()
>>> for name in 'Daniel', 'Maria', 'Thomas':
...     request.form['crud-edit.%s.widgets.name' % name] = unicode(storage[name].name)
...     request.form['crud-edit.%s.widgets.age' % name] = unicode(storage[name].age)
>>> request.form['crud-edit.Thomas.widgets.name'] = u'Dracula'
>>> request.form['crud-edit.form.buttons.edit'] = u'Apply Changes'
>>> print MyAdvancedLinkingForm(None, request)() \
... # doctest: +ELLIPSIS +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
<div class="crud-form">...
...<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dracula"...Dracula...</a>...
</div>
>>> storage['Thomas'].name = u'Thomas'

Don't render one part

What if we wanted our form to display only one part, that is, only the add or the edit form. Our CrudForm can implement editform_factory and addform_factory to override one or both forms. Seeting one of these to crud.NullForm will make them disappear:

>>> class OnlyEditForm(MyForm):
...     addform_factory = crud.NullForm
>>> html = OnlyEditForm(None, TestRequest())()
>>> 'Edit' in html, 'Add' in html
(True, False)
>>> class OnlyAddForm(MyForm):
...     editform_factory = crud.NullForm
>>> html = OnlyAddForm(None, TestRequest())()
>>> 'Edit' in html, 'Add' in html
(False, True)

Render only in view, and define own actions

Sometimes you want to present a list of items, possibly in view mode only, and have the user select one or more of the items to perform some action with them. We'll present a minimal example that does this here.

We can simply leave the update_schema class attribute out (it defaults to None). Furthermore, we'll need to override the ediform_factory with our custom version that provides other buttons than the 'edit' and 'delete' ones:

>>> from pprint import pprint
>>> from z3c.form import button
>>> class MyEditForm(crud.EditForm):
...     @button.buttonAndHandler(u'Capitalize', name='capitalize')
...     def handle_capitalize(self, action):
...         self.status = u"Please select items to capitalize first."
...         selected = self.selected_items()
...         if selected:
...             self.status = u"Capitalized items"
...             for id, item in selected:
...                 item.name = item.name.upper()
>>> class MyCustomForm(crud.CrudForm):
...     view_schema = IPerson
...     editform_factory = MyEditForm
...     addform_factory = crud.NullForm     # We don't want an add part.
...
...     def get_items(self):
...         return sorted(storage.items(), key=lambda x: x[1].name)
>>> request = TestRequest()
>>> html = MyCustomForm(None, TestRequest())()
>>> "Delete" in html, "Apply changes" in html, "Capitalize" in html
(False, False, True)
>>> pprint(storage)
{'Daniel': <Person with name=u'Daniel', age=35>,
 'Maria': <Person with name=u'Maria', age=40>,
 'Thomas': <Person with name=u'Thomas', age=28>}
>>> request.form['crud-edit.Thomas.widgets.select'] = ['selected']
>>> request.form['crud-edit.form.buttons.capitalize'] = u'Capitalize'
>>> html = MyCustomForm(None, request)()
>>> "Capitalized items" in html
True
>>> pprint(storage)
{'Daniel': <Person with name=u'Daniel', age=35>,
 'Maria': <Person with name=u'Maria', age=40>,
 'Thomas': <Person with name=u'THOMAS', age=28>}

We cannot use any of the other buttons:

>>> del request.form['crud-edit.form.buttons.capitalize']
>>> request.form['crud-edit.form.buttons.delete'] = u'Delete'
>>> html = MyCustomForm(None, request)()
>>> "Successfully deleted items" in html
False
>>> 'Thomas' in storage
True

Customizing sub forms

The EditForm class allows you to specify an editsubform_factory-a classs inherits from EditSubForm. This allows you to say, override the crud-row.pt page template and customize the look of the fields.

>>> import zope.schema
>>> class MyCustomEditSubForm(crud.EditSubForm):
...
...     def _select_field(self):
...         """I want to customize the field that it comes with..."""
...         select_field = field.Field(
...         zope.schema.TextLine(__name__='select',
...                              required=False,
...                              title=u'select'))
...         return select_field
>>> class MyCustomEditForm(MyEditForm):
...     editsubform_factory = MyCustomEditSubForm
>>> class MyCustomFormWithCustomSubForm(MyCustomForm):
...     editform_factory = MyCustomEditForm
>>> request = TestRequest()
>>> html = MyCustomFormWithCustomSubForm(None, TestRequest())()
Still uses same form as before
>>> "Delete" in html, "Apply changes" in html, "Capitalize" in html
(False, False, True)
Just changes the widget used for selecting...
>>> 'type="checkbox"' in html
False

Using batching

The CrudForm base class supports batching. When setting the batch_size attribute to a value greater than 0, we'll only get as many items displayed per page.

>>> class MyBatchingForm(MyForm):
...     batch_size = 2
>>> request = TestRequest()
>>> html = MyBatchingForm(None, request)()
>>> "Daniel" in html, "Maria" in html
(True, True)
>>> "THOMAS" in html
False
>>> request.form['crud-edit.form.page'] = '1'
>>> html = MyBatchingForm(None, request)()
>>> "Daniel" in html, "Maria" in html
(False, False)
>>> "THOMAS" in html
True

Let's change Thomas' age on the second page:

>>> request.form['crud-edit.Thomas.widgets.name'] = u'Thomas'
>>> request.form['crud-edit.Thomas.widgets.age'] = '911'
>>> request.form['crud-edit.form.buttons.edit'] = u'Apply changes'
>>> html = MyBatchingForm(None, request)()
>>> "Successfully updated" in html
True
>>> "911" in html
True

Changelog

0.8.0 (2012-08-30)

  • Remove backwards-compatibility code for Zope < 2.12 [davisagli]
  • Use plone.testing for functional test layer support. [hannosch]
  • Use ViewPageTemplateFile from zope.browserpage. [hannosch]
  • Use form action URL as given by the view, instead of implementing it in the template as a call to the getURL method of the request. [malthe]
  • Use plone.batching for batches instead of z3c.batching [tom_gross]

0.7.8 - 2011-09-24

  • Do not display h1 element if there is no label on view. [thomasdesvenain]
  • Add Chinese translation. [jianaijun]

0.7.7 - 2011-06-30

  • Avoid rendering a wrapped form if a redirect has already occurred after updating it. [davisagli]
  • Remove <a name=""/> elements from inside the CRUD table TBODY element they were otherwise unused (and illegal in that location of the HTML content model). [mj]

0.7.6 - 2011-05-17

  • Add ability to find widgets with non-integer names in lists. This shouldn't generally be something that happens, and ideally should be removed if DataGridField looses it's 'AA' and 'TT' rows. [lentinj]

0.7.5 - 2011-05-03

  • Fix traversal tests on Zope 2.10 to handle TraversalError instead of LocationError. [elro]
  • Fix traversal.py syntax to be python2.4 compatible.
  • Revert [120798] as it breaks on Zope2.10 / Plone 3.3. We can deal with Zope 2.14 in 0.8.x. [elro]

0.7.4 - 2011-05-03

  • Define 'hidden' within field macro. [elro]
  • Ignore "form.widgets." if ++widget++ path begins with it. [lentinj]
  • Rework traverser to handle lists and subforms [lentinj]
  • Only search a group's widgets if they exist. collective.z3cform.wizard doesn't create widgets for pages/groups other than the current one [lentinj, elro]
  • Deal with forward compatibility with Zope 2.14.
  • Adds Brazilian Portuguese translation. [davilima6]

0.7.3 - 2011-03-02

  • Handle wrong fieldnames more cleanly in the ++widget++ traverser. [elro]

0.7.2 - 2011-02-17

  • Make sure the CRUD add form doesn't use a standalone template. [davisagli]

0.7.1 - 2011-01-18

  • Add zope.app.testing to test dependencies so that it continues to work under Zope 2.13. [esteele]

0.7.0 - 2010-08-04

  • Add a marker interface which can be used by widgets to defer any security checks they may be doing when they are set up during traversal with the ++widgets++ namespace [dukebody]
  • Fix re-ordering of fields not in the default fieldset. Thanks to Thomas Buchberger for the patch. [optilude]
  • Added Norwegian translation. [regebro]

0.6.0 - 2010-04-20

  • In the CRUD table, fix odd/even labels, which were reversed. [limi]
  • Added slots to the titlelessform macro. See README.txt for details. [optilude, davisagli]
  • Remove the distinction between wrapped and unwrapped subforms. A subform is always wrapped by the form that contains it, and can use a Zope 3 page template. [davisagli]
  • Fixed tests in Plone 3. [davisagli]
  • Fixed tests in Plone 4 [optilude]
  • Made it possible to distinguish wrapped and unwrapped forms via the IWrappedForm marker interface. [optilude]
  • Made it possible to use z3c.form forms without a FormWrapper in Plone 4. [optilude]

0.5.10 - 2010-02-01

  • A z3c.form.form.AddForm do a redirect in its render method. So we have to render the form to see if we have a redirection. In the case of redirection, we don't render the layout at all. This version remove the contents method on FormWrapper, it's now an attribute set during the FormWrapper.update. This change fixes status message not shown because it was consumed by the never shown rendered form. [vincentfretin]

0.5.9 - 2010-01-08

  • Fix security problem with the ++widget++ namespace [optilude]

0.5.8 - 2009-11-24

  • Don't do the rendering if there is a redirection, use the update/render pattern for that. See http://dev.plone.org/plone/ticket/10022 for an example how to adapt your code, in particular if you used FormWrapper with ViewletBase. [vincentfretin]

0.5.7 - 2009-11-17

  • Fix silly doctests so that they don't break in Python 2.6 / Zope 2.12 [optilude]

0.5.6 - 2009-09-25

  • Added title_required msgid in macros.pt to be the same as plone.app.z3cform because macros.pt from plone.app.z3cform uses plone.z3cform translations. Added French translation and fixed German and Dutch translations for label_required and title_required messages. [vincentfretin]

0.5.5 - 2009-07-26

  • Removed explicit <includeOverrides /> call from configure.zcml. This causes race condition type errors in ZCML loading when overrides are included later. [optilude]

0.5.4 - 2009-04-17

  • Added monkey patch to fix a bug in z3c.form's ChoiceTerms on z3c.form 1.9.0. [optilude]
  • Fix obvious bugs and dodgy naming in SingleCheckBoxWidget. [optilude]
  • Use chameleon-based page templates from five.pt if available. [davisagli]
  • Copied the basic textlines widget from z3c.form trunk for use until it is released. [davisagli]

0.5.3 - 2008-12-09

  • Add translation marker for batch, update translation files. [thefunny42]
  • Handle changed signature for widget extract method in z3c.form > 1.9.0 [davisagli]
  • Added wildcard support to the 'before' and 'after' parameters of the fieldset 'move' utility function. [davisagli]
  • Fixes for Zope 2.12 compatibility. [davisagli]
  • Don't display an 'Apply changes' button if you don't define an update_schema. [thefunny42]
  • Declare xmlnamespace into 'layout.pt' and 'subform.pt' templates
  • Added support for an editsubform_factory for an EditForm so you can override the default behavior for a sub form now.
  • Changed css in crud-table.pt for a table to "listing" so that tables now look like plone tables.
  • Copy translation files to an english folder, so if your browser negociate to en,nl, you will get english translations instead of dutch ones (like expected). [thefunny42]
  • Send an event IAfterWidgetUpdateEvent after updating display widgets manually in a CRUD form. [thefunny42]

0.5.2 - 2008-08-28

  • Add a namespace traversal adapter that allows traversal to widgets. This is useful for AJAX calls, for example.

0.5.1 - 2008-08-21

  • Add batching to plone.z3cform.crud CrudForm.
  • Look up the layout template as an IPageTemplate adapter. This means that it is possible for Plone to provide a "Ploneish" default template for forms that don't opt into this, without those forms having a direct Plone dependency.
  • Default to the titleless form template, since the layout template will provide a title anyway.
  • In plone.z3cform.layout, allow labels to be defined per form instance, and not only per form class.

0.5.0 - 2008-07-30

  • No longer depend on <3.5 of zope.component.

0.4 - 2008-07-25

  • Depend on zope.component<3.5 to avoid TypeError("Missing 'provides' attribute") error.
  • Allow ICrudForm.add to raise ValidationError, which allows for displaying a user-friendly error message.
  • Make the default layout template CMFDefault- compatible.

0.3 - 2008-07-24

  • Moved Plone layout wrapper to plone.app.z3cform.layout. If you were using plone.z3cform.base.FormWrapper to get the Plone layout before, you'll have to use plone.app.z3cform.layout.FormWrapper instead now. (Also, make sure you include plone.app.z3cform's ZCML in this case.)

  • Move out Plone-specific subpackages to plone.app.z3cform. These are:

    • wysywig: Kupu/Plone integration
    • queryselect: use z3c.formwidget.query with Archetypes

    Clean up testing code and development buildout.cfg to not pull in Plone anymore. [nouri]

  • Relicensed under the ZPL 2.1 and moved into the Zope repository. [nouri]

  • Add German translation. [saily]

0.2 - 2008-06-20

  • Fix usage of NumberDataConverter with zope.i18n >= 3.4 as the previous test setup was partial and did not register all adapters from z3c.form (some of them depends on zope >= 3.4) [gotcha, jfroche]
  • More tests [gotcha, jfroche]

0.1 - 2008-05-21

  • Provide and register default form and subform templates. These allow forms to be used with the style provided in this package without having to declare form = ViewPageTemplateFile('form.pt').

    This does not hinder you from overriding with your own form attribute like usual. You can also still register a more specialized IPageTemplate for your form.

  • Add custom FileUploadDataConverter that converts a Zope 2 FileUpload object to a Zope 3 one before handing it to the original implementation. Also add support for different enctypes. [skatja, nouri]

  • Added Archetypes reference selection widget (queryselect) [malthe]

  • Moved generic Zope 2 compatibility code for z3c.form and a few goodies from Singing & Dancing into this new package. [nouri]

 
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