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pyramid 1.5a2

The Pyramid Web Framework, a Pylons project

Latest Version: 1.9.1


Pyramid is a small, fast, down-to-earth, open source Python web framework. It makes real-world web application development and deployment more fun, more predictable, and more productive.

Pyramid is produced by the Pylons Project.

Support and Documentation

See the Pylons Project website to view documentation, report bugs, and obtain support.


Pyramid is offered under the BSD-derived Repoze Public License.


Pyramid is made available by Agendaless Consulting and a team of contributors.

1.5a2 (2013-09-22)


  • Users can now provide dotted Python names to as the factory argument the Configurator methods named add_{view,route,subscriber}_predicate (instead of passing the predicate factory directly, you can pass a dotted name which refers to the factory).

Bug Fixes

  • Fix an exception in pyramid.path.package_name when resolving the package name for namespace packages that had no __file__ attribute.

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • Pyramid no longer depends on or configures the Mako and Chameleon templating system renderers by default. Disincluding these templating systems by default means that the Pyramid core has fewer dependencies and can run on future platforms without immediate concern for the compatibility of its templating add-ons. It also makes maintenance slightly more effective, as different people can maintain the templating system add-ons that they understand and care about without needing commit access to the Pyramid core, and it allows users who just don’t want to see any packages they don’t use come along for the ride when they install Pyramid.

    This means that upon upgrading to Pyramid 1.5a2+, projects that use either of these templating systems will see a traceback that ends something like this when their application attempts to render a Chameleon or Mako template:

    ValueError: No such renderer factory .pt


    ValueError: No such renderer factory .mako


    ValueError: No such renderer factory .mak

    Support for Mako templating has been moved into an add-on package named pyramid_mako, and support for Chameleon templating has been moved into an add-on package named pyramid_chameleon. These packages are drop-in replacements for the old built-in support for these templating langauges. All you have to do is install them and make them active in your configuration to register renderer factories for .pt and/or .mako (or .mak) to make your application work again.

    To re-add support for Chameleon and/or Mako template renderers into your existing projects, follow the below steps.

    If you depend on Mako templates:

    • Make sure the pyramid_mako package is installed. One way to do this is by adding pyramid_mako to the install_requires section of your package’s file and afterwards rerunning develop:

              'pyramid_mako',         # new dependency
    • Within the portion of your application which instantiates a Pyramid pyramid.config.Configurator (often the main() function in your project’s file), tell Pyramid to include the pyramid_mako includeme:

      config = Configurator(.....)

    If you depend on Chameleon templates:

    • Make sure the pyramid_chameleon package is installed. One way to do this is by adding pyramid_chameleon to the install_requires section of your package’s file and afterwards rerunning develop:

              'pyramid_chameleon',         # new dependency
    • Within the portion of your application which instantiates a Pyramid ~pyramid.config.Configurator (often the main() function in your project’s file), tell Pyramid to include the pyramid_chameleon includeme:

      config = Configurator(.....)

    Note that it’s also fine to install these packages into older Pyramids for forward compatibility purposes. Even if you don’t upgrade to Pyramid 1.5 immediately, performing the above steps in a Pyramid 1.4 installation is perfectly fine, won’t cause any difference, and will give you forward compatibility when you eventually do upgrade to Pyramid 1.5.

    With the removal of Mako and Chameleon support from the core, some unit tests that use the pyramid.renderers.render* methods may begin to fail. If any of your unit tests are invoking either pyramid.renderers.render() or pyramid.renderers.render_to_response() with either Mako or Chameleon templates then the pyramid.config.Configurator instance in effect during the unit test should be also be updated to include the addons, as shown above. For example:

    class ATest(unittest.TestCase):
        def setUp(self):
            self.config = pyramid.testing.setUp()
        def test_it(self):
            result = pyramid.renderers.render('mypkg:templates/home.mako', {})


    class ATest(unittest.TestCase):
        def setUp(self):
            self.config = pyramid.testing.setUp()
        def test_it(self):
            result = pyramid.renderers.render('mypkg:templates/', {})
  • If you’re using the Pyramid debug toolbar, when you upgrade Pyramid to 1.5a2+, you’ll also need to upgrade the pyramid_debugtoolbar package to at least version 1.0.8, as older toolbar versions are not compatible with Pyramid 1.5a2+ due to the removal of Mako support from the core. It’s fine to use this newer version of the toolbar code with older Pyramids too.

  • Removed the request.response_* varying attributes. These attributes have been deprecated since Pyramid 1.1, and as per the deprecation policy, have now been removed.

  • request.response will no longer be mutated when using the pyramid.renderers.render() API. Almost all renderers mutate the request.response response object (for example, the JSON renderer sets request.response.content_type to application/json), but this is only necessary when the renderer is generating a response; it was a bug when it was done as a side effect of calling pyramid.renderers.render().

  • Removed the bfg2pyramid fixer script.

  • The event is now sent after response callbacks are executed. It previously executed before response callbacks were executed. Rationale: it’s more useful to be able to inspect the response after response callbacks have done their jobs instead of before.

  • Removed the class named pyramid.view.static that had been deprecated since Pyramid 1.1. Instead use pyramid.static.static_view with use_subpath=True argument.

  • Removed the pyramid.view.is_response function that had been deprecated since Pyramid 1.1. Use the pyramid.request.Request.is_response method instead.

  • Removed the ability to pass the following arguments to pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route: view, view_context. view_for, view_permission, view_renderer, and view_attr. Using these arguments had been deprecated since Pyramid 1.1. Instead of passing view-related arguments to add_route, use a separate call to pyramid.config.Configurator.add_view to associate a view with a route using its route_name argument. Note that this impacts the pyramid.config.Configurator.add_static_view function too, because it delegates to add_route.

  • Removed the ability to influence and query a pyramid.request.Request object as if it were a dictionary. Previously it was possible to use methods like __getitem__, get, items, and other dictlike methods to access values in the WSGI environment. This behavior had been deprecated since Pyramid 1.1. Use methods of request.environ (a real dictionary) instead.

  • Removed ancient backwards compatibily hack in pyramid.traversal.DefaultRootFactory which populated the __dict__ of the factory with the matchdict values for compatibility with BFG 0.9.

  • The renderer_globals_factory argument to the pyramid.config.Configurator` constructor and its ``setup_registry method has been removed. The set_renderer_globals_factory method of pyramid.config.Configurator has also been removed. The (internal) pyramid.interfaces.IRendererGlobals interface was also removed. These arguments, methods and interfaces had been deprecated since 1.1. Use a BeforeRender event subscriber as documented in the “Hooks” chapter of the Pyramid narrative documentation instead of providing renderer globals values to the configurator.


  • The pyramid.config.Configurator.set_request_property method now issues a deprecation warning when used. It had been docs-deprecated in 1.4 but did not issue a deprecation warning when used.

1.5a1 (2013-08-30)


  • A new http exception subclass named pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPSuccessful was added. You can use this class as the context of an exception view to catch all 200-series “exceptions” (e.g. “raise HTTPOk”). This also allows you to catch only the HTTPOk exception itself; previously this was impossible because a number of other exceptions (such as HTTPNoContent) inherited from HTTPOk, but now they do not.

  • You can now generate “hybrid” urldispatch/traversal URLs more easily by using the new route_name, route_kw and route_remainder_name arguments to request.resource_url and request.resource_path. See the new section of the “Combining Traversal and URL Dispatch” documentation chapter entitled “Hybrid URL Generation”.

  • It is now possible to escape double braces in Pyramid scaffolds (unescaped, these represent replacement values). You can use \{\{a\}\} to represent a “bare” {{a}}. See

  • Add localizer and locale_name properties (reified) to the request. See Note that the pyramid.i18n.get_localizer and pyramid.i18n.get_locale_name functions now simply look up these properties on the request.

  • Add pdistreport script, which prints the Python version in use, the Pyramid version in use, and the version number and location of all Python distributions currently installed.

  • Add the ability to invert the result of any view, route, or subscriber predicate using the not_ class. For example:

    from pyramid.config import not_
    @view_config(route_name='myroute', request_method=not_('POST'))
    def myview(request): ...

    The above example will ensure that the view is called if the request method is not POST (at least if no other view is more specific).

    The pyramid.config.not_ class can be used against any value that is a predicate value passed in any of these contexts:

    • pyramid.config.Configurator.add_view
    • pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route
    • pyramid.config.Configurator.add_subscriber
    • pyramid.view.view_config
  • scripts/ add support for submitting PUT and PATCH requests. See add support for submitting OPTIONS and PROPFIND requests, and allow users to specify basic authentication credentials in the request via a --login argument to the script. See

  • ACLAuthorizationPolicy supports __acl__ as a callable. This removes the ambiguity between the potential AttributeError that would be raised on the context when the property was not defined and the AttributeError that could be raised from any user-defined code within a dynamic property. It is recommended to define a dynamic ACL as a callable to avoid this ambiguity. See

  • Allow a protocol-relative URL (e.g. // to be passed to pyramid.config.Configurator.add_static_view. This allows externally-hosted static URLs to be generated based on the current protocol.

  • The AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy has two new options to configure its domain usage:

    • parent_domain: if set the authentication cookie is set on the parent domain. This is useful if you have multiple sites sharing the same domain.
    • domain: if provided the cookie is always set for this domain, bypassing all usual logic.

    See, and

  • The AuthTktAuthenticationPolicy now supports IPv6 addresses when using the include_ip=True option. This is possibly incompatible with alternative auth_tkt implementations, as the specification does not define how to properly handle IPv6. See

  • Make it possible to use variable arguments via pyramid.paster.get_appsettings. This also allowed the generated initialize_db script from the alchemy scaffold to grow support for options in the form a=1 b=2 so you can fill in values in a parameterized .ini file, e.g. initialize_myapp_db etc/development.ini a=1 b=2. See

  • The request.session.check_csrf_token() method and the check_csrf view predicate now take into account the value of the HTTP header named X-CSRF-Token (as well as the csrf_token form parameter, which they always did). The header is tried when the form parameter does not exist.

  • View lookup will now search for valid views based on the inheritance hierarchy of the context. It tries to find views based on the most specific context first, and upon predicate failure, will move up the inheritance chain to test views found by the super-type of the context. In the past, only the most specific type containing views would be checked and if no matching view could be found then a PredicateMismatch would be raised. Now predicate mismatches don’t hide valid views registered on super-types. Here’s an example that now works:

    class IResource(Interface):
    def get(context, request):
    @view_config(context=IResource, request_method='POST')
    def post(context, request):
    @view_config(context=IResource, request_method='DELETE')
    def delete(context, request):
    class MyResource:
    @view_config(context=MyResource, request_method='POST')
    def override_post(context, request):

    Previously the override_post view registration would hide the get and delete views in the context of MyResource – leading to a predicate mismatch error when trying to use GET or DELETE methods. Now the views are found and no predicate mismatch is raised. See and and

  • The pserve command now takes a -v (or --verbose) flag and a -q (or --quiet) flag. Output from running pserve can be controlled using these flags. -v can be specified multiple times to increase verbosity. -q sets verbosity to 0 unconditionally. The default verbosity level is 1.

  • The alchemy scaffold tests now provide better coverage. See

  • The pyramid.config.Configurator.add_route method now supports being called with an external URL as pattern. See and the documentation section in the “URL Dispatch” chapter entitled “External Routes” for more information.

Bug Fixes

  • It was not possible to use pyramid.httpexceptions.HTTPException as the context of an exception view as very general catchall for http-related exceptions when you wanted that exception view to override the default exception view. See
  • When the pyramid.reload_templates setting was true, and a Chameleon template was reloaded, and the renderer specification named a macro (e.g., renderings of the template after the template was reloaded due to a file change would produce the entire template body instead of just a rendering of the macro. See
  • Fix an obscure problem when combining a virtual root with a route with a *traverse in its pattern. Now the traversal path generated in such a configuration will be correct, instead of an element missing a leading slash.
  • Fixed a Mako renderer bug returning a tuple with a previous defname value in some circumstances. See for more information.
  • Make the pyramid.config.assets.PackageOverrides object implement the API for __loader__ objects specified in PEP 302. Proxies to the __loader__ set by the importer, if present; otherwise, raises NotImplementedError. This makes Pyramid static view overrides work properly under Python 3.3 (previously they would not). See for more information.
  • mako_templating: added defensive workaround for non-importability of mako due to upstream markupsafe dropping Python 3.2 support. Mako templating will no longer work under the combination of MarkupSafe 0.17 and Python 3.2 (although the combination of MarkupSafe 0.17 and Python 3.3 or any supported Python 2 version will work OK).
  • Spaces and dots may now be in mako renderer template paths. This was broken when support for the new makodef syntax was added in 1.4a1. See
  • pyramid.debug_authorization=true will now correctly print out Allowed for views registered with NO_PERMISSION_REQUIRED instead of invoking the permits method of the authorization policy. See
  • Pyramid failed to install on some systems due to being packaged with some test files containing higher order characters in their names. These files have now been removed. See
  • pyramid.testing.DummyResource didn’t define __bool__, so code under Python 3 would use __len__ to find truthiness; this usually caused an instance of DummyResource to be “falsy” instead of “truthy”. See
  • The alchemy scaffold would break when the database was MySQL during tables creation. See
  • The current_route_url method now attaches the query string to the URL by default. See
  • Make pserve.cherrypy_server_runner Python 3 compatible. See

Backwards Incompatibilities

  • Modified the current_route_url method in pyramid.Request. The method previously returned the URL without the query string by default, it now does attach the query string unless it is overriden.
  • The route_url and route_path APIs no longer quote / to %2F when a replacement value contains a /. This was pointless, as WSGI servers always unquote the slash anyway, and Pyramid never sees the quoted value.
  • It is no longer possible to set a locale_name attribute of the request, nor is it possible to set a localizer attribute of the request. These are now “reified” properties that look up a locale name and localizer respectively using the machinery described in the “Internationalization” chapter of the documentation.
  • If you send an X-Vhm-Root header with a value that ends with a slash (or any number of slashes), the trailing slash(es) will be removed before a URL is generated when you use use request.resource_url or request.resource_path. Previously the virtual root path would not have trailing slashes stripped, which would influence URL generation.
  • The pyramid.interfaces.IResourceURL interface has now grown two new attributes: virtual_path_tuple and physical_path_tuple. These should be the tuple form of the resource’s path (physical and virtual).
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