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ruamel.ordereddict 0.4.8

a version of dict that keeps keys in insertion resp. sorted order



:Version: ordereddict 0.4.6
:Author: Anthon van der Neut
:Date: 2014-01-19

.. image::

The ordereddict module in short

This is an implementation of an ordered dictionary with Key Insertion
Order (KIO: updates of values do not affect the position of the key),
Key Value Insertion Order (KVIO, an existing key's position is removed
and put at the back).

Sorted dictionaries are also provided. Currently only with Key Sorted
Order (KSO, no sorting function can be specified, but you can specify a
transform to apply on the key before comparison (e.g. string.lower)).

This package is hosted on BitBucket and installable from PyPI::

pip install ruamel.ordereddict

For Windows there are 32 and 64 bit installable wheels available.


from ruamel.ordereddict import ordereddict
kio = ordereddict()
kvio = ordereddict(kvio=True)
# without relax unordered initalisation is not allowed
d = ordereddict({'a':1, 'b': 2}, relax=True)
sd = sorteddict({'a':1, 'b': 2}) # sorteddict is always relaxed

**please note that starting with 0.4.6 you should not import _ordereddict

This module has been tested under:

============= ========================= ==========
OS compiler Python
Linux Mint 17 gcc 4.8.2 2.7.10
Linux Mint 17 gcc 4.8.2 2.6.9
Windows XP-64 Visual Studio 2008 2.7.10-32
Windows XP-64 Visual Studio 2008 2.7.10-64
Windows XP-64 Visual Studio 2010 2.6.9-32
Windows XP-64 Visual Studio 2010 2.6.9-64
============= ========================= ==========

Older versions of this module has been tested under
and I expect those to still work:

============ ========================= ======
OS compiler Python
Ubuntu 12.04 gcc 4.7.2 2.7.6
Ubuntu 12.04 gcc 4.7.2 2.6.8
Ubuntu 8.04 gcc 4.2.4 2.7.6
Ubuntu 8.04 gcc 4.2.4 2.5.2
Windows XP Visual C++ 2008 Express 2.7.6
Windows 7 64 Windows SDK for Win7 SP1 2.7.6
Ubuntu 12.04 gcc 4.6.3 2.7.3
Ubuntu 8.04 gcc 4.2.4 2.6.4
Ubuntu 8.04 gcc 4.2.4 2.5.2
Ubuntu 8.10 gcc 4.3.2 2.5.4
Ubuntu 8.10 gcc 4.3.2 2.4.6
Ubuntu 7.04 gcc 4.1.2 2.5.1
Ubuntu 7.04 gcc 4.1.2 2.4.4
Ubuntu 6.06 gcc 2.5.1
Windows XP Visual Studio 2003 2.5.1
Windows XP Visual C++ 2008 Express 2.6.5
Windows MingGW 4.7.0 2.7.3
Solaris 10 GCC 4.4.x 2.7.3
============ ========================= ======

Version 0.4.1 was tested and found working on SuSE Linux Enterprise Server
(GCC 4.1.0 and Intel C/C++ 10.1) by Stuart Stock.

MingGW and Solaris were tested and reported to work by Wladimir with version

---------------------------- is ordereddict's home on the web.

Clone the repository there if you want to work from the source. used to be
ordereddict's home on the web.
There you can still find the links for downloading the older version (0.4.5).


.. comment: To install the package you can use::

pip install ruamel.ordereddict

You can clone and checkout the sources, and then run::

python install


If you find any problems, please let me know, but also realise that I
have a spamfilter that catches over 100 emails a day and yours might
get in there unnoticed. So if there is no response within a few days
please try again.


ordereddict has all of the functionality of dict() except that there
is no keyword based initialisation and that you cannot pass a normal
dict to the initialisation of the basic ordereddict (however see the
relax-ed keyword below). sorteddict cannot be initialised from keywords
either, but can be initialised from normal dict (ie. they are always

As you probably would expect .keys(), .values(), .items(),
.iterkeys(), itervalues(), iteritems() and "for i in some_ordereddict"
have elements ordered based on the key insertion order (or key value
insertion order if kvio is specified, or sort order for sorteddict).

ordered/sorteddicts can be pickled.

Some methods have been slightly changed:

- initialisation of ordereddict takes keywords:

- kvio: if set to True, then move an existing key on update
- relax: if set to True, the ordereddict is relaxed for its life regarding
initialisation and/or update from unordered data (read a normal dict).

- initialisation of sorteddict takes keyword:

- key: specifies a function to apply on key (e.g. string.lower)

- .popitem() takes an optional argument (defaulting to -1) indicating which
key/value pair to return (by default the last one available)
- .dict()/.values()/.items()/.iterdict()/.itervalues()/.iteritems()
all take an optional reverse (default False) parameter that gives
the list reversed order resp. iterates in reverse
(the non-iterator can also be done relatively efficient with e.g.
od.dict().reverse() )
- .update(): takes an optional relax=True which allows one time
ordereddict update from normal dictionaries regardless of
initialisation time relax setting.

In addition to that ordereddict and sorteddict have some extra methods:

- .index(key) - gives an integer value that is the index of the key
- .setkeys()/.setvalues()/.setitems(), work like those in the Larosa/Foord
implementation, although they might throw different exceptions:
- setvalues' argument must be an itereable that returns the same number of
items as the length of the ordereddict
- setitems' argument is free in length, it performs a clear and adds
the items in order.
- slice retrieval for all

and ordereddict only also has:

- .setkeys(), works like the one in the Larosa/Foord
implementation. Argument must be an itereable returning a permutation of the
existing keys ( that implies having the same length as the ordereddict)
- .reverse() - reverses the keys in place
- .insert(position, key, value) - this will put a key at a particular position
so that afterwards .index(key) == position, if the key was already there
the original position (and value) is lost to the new position. This often
means moving keys to new positions!
- slice deletion/assigment:
- stepped deletion could be optimized a bit (individual items are deleted
which can require memmoving multiple items)
- assigment only from OrderedDict (with the same length as the slice). This
could also be optimised as I first delete, then insert individual items.
If the assigned items contain keys that are still there after the deletion
'phase' then retrieving that slice does not always give the original
assigned ordereddict (depending on the position of the items
with those keys in either ordereddict)
- .rename(oldkey, newkey) renames a key, but keeps the items position and value

The new OrderedDict in the standard collections module

With Python 3.1 and backported to 2.7 there is an OrderedDict class
available in the collections modules. Raymond Hettinger indicated in
2009 at EuroPython that he preferred to start from a minimal
OrderedDict instead of using the Larosa/Foord
implementation. Unfortunately the available tests (for the
functionality that the simple collections.OrderedDict supports) were
not used either resulting in preventable bugs like repr initially not
working on recursive OrderedDicts.

ordereddict (and the Larosa/Foord implementation) is essentially
a superset of collections.OrderedDict, but there are a few

- OrderedDict is by default relax-ed.
- repr of recursive OrderedDict does not give any indication of the
value of the recursive key, as it only displays `...`. ordereddict
displays `ordereddict([...])` as value. Just using the dots like
OrderedDict does is going to be ambiguous as soon as you have two different
types A and B and nest A in B in A or B in B in A.
- some newer build-in functions available in OrderedDict are not
available in ordereddict ( __reversed__, viewkeys, viewvalues, viewitems).

All of the differences can be straightened out in small (70 lines of
Python) OrderedDict wrapper around ordereddict. With this wrapper the
OrderedDict tests in the standard all pass.

------- in the test subdirectory has been used to test the module.
You can use:

python testordereddict

to run the tests (py.test support has been dropped as newer versions
of py.test were not compatible).

There is a somewhat patched copy of the python lib/Test dictionary testing
routines included as well, it fails on the _update test however
because the default is not to use a relaxed ordereddict.
You can run it with::

cd test/unit

To Do
- implement Value Sorted Order (VSO: specify value=True for normal
value comparison), or a value rewrite function for VSO ( e.g.
value=string.lower )
- implement Item Sorted Order (ISO): compare value then key ( the other way
around would not make sense with unique keys, but we might have
non-unique values).
- implement slice deletion for sorteddict
- more testing of sorteddict functionality
- speedtest slices
- speedtest sorteddict
- check on the test_update unittest in

To Consider
- comparing ordereddicts (as per Larosa/Foord)
- implement the whole (optionally) using pointers in the DictObject Items
(Faster on insertion/deletion, slower on accessing slices, makes
implementing algorithms somewhat more difficult), would have to seperate
code for sorteddict as key position determination would be much slower.
- supply a pure Python implementation of exactly the functionality in
- test on older versions (< 2.4) of Python and make portable (if this can
be done without too much clutter) or port.
- test on the Mac
- optimise searching for an item pointer for sorteddict with binary search
(for deletion)

Background information

ordereddict is directly derived from Python's own dictobject.c file.
The extensions and the representation of ordereddicts() are based
on Larosa/Foord's excellent pure Python OrderedDict() module

The implemenation adds a vector of pointers to elements to the basic
dictionary structure and keeps this vector compact (and in order) so
indexing is fast. The elements do not know about their position (so
nothing needs to be updated there if that position changes, but then
finding an item's index is expensive. Insertion/deletion is also relatively
expensive in that on average half of the vector of pointers needs to
be memmove-d one position.
There is also a long value for bit info like kvio, relaxed.

The sorteddict structure has an additional 3 pointers of which only
one (sd_key) is currently used (the others are sd_cmp and sd_value).


Based on some tests with best of 10 iterations of 10000 iterations of various
functions under Ubuntu 7.10 (see test/ and test/

Results in seconds:

------------------------------- dict ordereddict Larosa/Ford collections
OrderedDict OrderedDict
empty 0.023 0.025 0.023 0.024
create_empty 0.028 0.031 0.147 0.329
create_five_entry 0.037 0.042 0.384 0.558
create_26_entry 0.187 0.203 1.494 1.602
create_676_entry 5.330 5.574 36.797 34.810
get_keys_from_26_entry 0.209 0.231 1.501 1.762
pop_5_items_26_entry 0.219 0.247 1.952 1.864
pop_26_items_676_entry 7.550 8.127 46.578 41.851
popitem_last_26_entry 0.203 0.225 1.624 1.734
popitem_last_676_entry 5.285 5.534 36.912 34.799
popitem_100_676_entry -------- 5.552 36.577 --------
walk_26_iteritems -------- 0.494 2.792 2.238
------------------------------- dict ordereddict Larosa/Ford collections
OrderedDict OrderedDict

empty 0.930 1.000 0.950 0.966
create_empty 0.909 1.000 4.728 10.594
create_five_entry 0.892 1.000 9.201 13.374
create_26_entry 0.923 1.000 7.368 7.901
create_676_entry 0.956 1.000 6.601 6.245
get_keys_from_26_entry 0.908 1.000 6.508 7.641
pop_5_items_26_entry 0.888 1.000 7.916 7.559
pop_26_items_676_entry 0.929 1.000 5.732 5.150
popitem_last_26_entry 0.901 1.000 7.222 7.712
popitem_last_676_entry 0.955 1.000 6.670 6.288
popitem_100_676_entry -------- 1.000 6.588 --------
walk_26_iteritems -------- 1.000 5.653 4.532


Because I am orderly ;-O, and because I use dictionaries to
store key/value information read from some text file quite often.
Unfortunately comparing those files with diff when written from
normal dictionaries often obfucates changes because of the reordering
of lines when key/value pairs are added and then written.

I have special routine for YAML files that takes lines like::

- key1: val1
- key2: val3
- key3:
- val3a
- val3b

(i.e. a list of key-value pairs) directly to a single ordered dictionary
and back. (I find it kind of strange to finally have a structured,
human readeable, format that does not try to preserve the
order of key-value pairs so that comparing files is difficult with
'standard' text tools).

| ``0.4.8 2015-05-31``
| dependent on ruamel.base
| version number in a single place
| using py.test under tox
| generate wheel for 32/64bit py26/py27 on windows
| ``0.4.6 2014-01-18``
| Move to ruamel namespace, hosted on bitbucket, MIT License
| Testing with tox
| ``0.4.5 2012-06-17``
| Fix for a bug while inserting last item again beyond last position (reported
| by Volkan Çetin / volki tolki ( cetinv at )
| Fix for repeated deletion and insertion fail. Found by and solution provided
| by Darren Dowker (including tests). Also found by Fabio Zadronzy (including
| a less elegant fix).
| applied reindent to .py and astyle to .c files
| ``0.4.3 2009-05-11``
| Fix for a bug in slicing SortedDicts.
| Found by, and fix provided by, Migel Anguel
| ``0.4.2 2009-03-27``
| Bug found and by Alexandre Andrade and Fabio Zadrozny in
| doing deepcopy
| ``0.4.1 2007-11-06``
| Bug found and fixed by Fabio Zadrozny on resizing dictionaries
| ``0.4 2007-10-30``
| added pickling, added relaxed initialisation/update (from unordered dicts)
| added KVIO (Key Value Insertion Order ie. key moves to back on update)
| implemented sorteddict, with KSO, Key Sorted Order. You can specify
| a function for key transformation before comparison (such as string.lower)
| sorteddict does not have all of the ordereddict methods as not all make
| sense (eg. slice assignment, rename, setkeys)
| ``0.3 2007-10-24``
| added setkeys/setvalues/setitems; slice retrieval, deletion, assigment
| .rename(oldkey, newkey) rename a key keeping same value and position
| .index() of non-existing key now returns ValueError instead of SystemError
| Changed the module name to _ordereddict (from ordereddict), as Jason
| Kirstland probably rightfully suggested that any private implementation
| likely has the (file)name A modulename with leading
| underscore seams more common for extension modules anyway.
| ``0.2a 2007-10-16``
| Solved the potential GC problem on Windows
| ``0.2 2007-10-16``
| First release, with some tests, and possible still a GC problem
| with Windows.
| ``0.1 2007-10-..``
| This version was never released. While testing it I was far in writing
| an email to comp.lang.python about why timing with timeit did seem to
| be memory hungry ....
| and then I realised ordereddict had a memory leak %-)
File Type Py Version Uploaded on Size
ruamel.ordereddict-0.4.8-cp26-none-win32.whl (md5) Python Wheel cp26 2015-05-31 35KB
ruamel.ordereddict-0.4.8-cp26-none-win_amd64.whl (md5) Python Wheel cp26 2015-05-31 38KB
ruamel.ordereddict-0.4.8-cp27-none-win32.whl (md5) Python Wheel cp27 2015-05-31 35KB
ruamel.ordereddict-0.4.8-cp27-none-win_amd64.whl (md5) Python Wheel cp27 2015-05-31 35KB
ruamel.ordereddict-0.4.8.tar.gz (md5) Source 2015-05-31 47KB
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