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ska 0.9

Signing (HTTP) requests using symmetric-key algorithm.

Package Documentation

Latest Version: 1.4.3

Symmetric-key algorithm encryption. Lets you easily generate signatures for signing (HTTP) requests. Allows you to validate signed requests and identify possible validation errors. Uses sha1/hmac for signature encryption.

Key concepts

Host and server share the Secret Key, which is used to sign requests. Secret key is never sent around.

Each (HTTP) request is signed on the client side using the shared Secret Key and as an outcome produces the triple (signature, auth_user, valid_until) which are used to sign the requests.

  • signature (str): Signature generated.
  • auth_user (str): User making the request. Can be anything.
  • valid_until (float|str): Signature expiration time (Unix timestamp).

On the server side, (HTTP) request is validated using the shared Secret Key. It's being checked whether signature is valid and not expired.

Prerequisites

  • Core ska module requires Python 2.6.8+, 2.7.+, 3.3.+
  • Django ska module (ska.contrib.django.ska) requires the mentioned above plus Django 1.5.+

Installation

Latest stable version from PyPI.

$ pip install ska

Latest stable version from bitbucket.

$ pip install -e hg+https://bitbucket.org/barseghyanartur/ska@stable#egg=ska

Latest stable version from github.

$ pip install -e git+https://github.com/barseghyanartur/ska@stable#egg=ska

Usage examples

For integration with Django, see the Django integration section.

Basic usage

Pure Python usage.

Client side

Signing URLs is as simple as follows.

Required imports.

>>> from ska import sign_url

Producing a signed URL.

>>> signed_url = sign_url(
>>>     auth_user='user', secret_key='your-secret_key', url='http://e.com/api/'
>>> )
http://e.com/api/?valid_until=1378045287.0&auth_user=user&signature=YlZpLFsjUKBalL4x5trhkeEgqE8%3D

Default lifetime of a signature is 10 minutes (600 seconds). If you want it to be different, provide a lifetime argument to sign_url function.

Default name of the (GET) param holding the generated signature value is signature. If you want it to be different, provide a signature_param argument to sign_url function.

Default name of the (GET) param holding the auth_user value is auth_user. If you want it to be different, provide a auth_user_param argument to sign_url function.

Default name of the (GET) param holding the valid_until value is valid_until. If you want it to be different, provide a valid_until_param argument to sign_url function.

Note, that by default a suffix '?' is added after the given url and generated signature params. If you want that suffix to be custom or gone, provide a suffix argument to the sign_url function.

With all customisations, it would look as follows.

>>> signed_url = sign_url(
>>>     auth_user='user', secret_key='your-secret_key', lifetime=120,
>>>     url='http://e.com/api/', signature_param='signature',
>>>     auth_user_param='auth_user', valid_until_param='valid_until'
>>> )

You may now proceed with the signed URL request. If you use the famous requests library, it would be as follows.

>>> import requests
>>> requests.get(signed_url)

If you want to use POST method instead, you would likely want to get a dictionary back, in order to append it to the POST data later.

Required imports.

>>> from ska import signature_to_dict

Producing a dictionary containing the signature data, ready to be put into the request (for example POST) data. All customisations mentioned above for the sign_url function, also apply to the signature_to_dict.

>>> signature_dict = signature_to_dict(
>>>     auth_user='user', secret_key='your-secret_key'
>>> )
{
    'signature': 'YlZpLFsjUKBalL4x5trhkeEgqE8=',
    'auth_user': 'user',
    'valid_until': '1378045287.0'
}

If you for some reason prefer a lower level implementation, read the same section in the Advanced usage chapter.

Server side

Validating the signed request data is as simple as follows.

Required imports.

>>> from ska import validate_signed_request_data

Validating the signed request data. Note, that data value is expected to be a dictionary; request.GET is given as an example. It will most likely vary from what's used in your framework (unless you use Django).

>>> validation_result = validate_signed_request_data(
>>>     data = request.GET, # Note, that ``request.GET`` is given as example.
>>>     secret_key = 'your-secret_key'
>>> )

The validate_signed_request_data produces a ska.SignatureValidationResult object, which holds the following data:

  • result (bool): True if data is valid. False otherwise.
  • reason (list): List of strings, indicating validation errors. Empty list in case if result is True.

Default name of the (GET) param holding the signature value is signature. If you want it to be different, provide a signature_param argument to validate_signed_request_data function.

Default name of the (GET) param holding the auth_user value is auth_user. If you want it to be different, provide a auth_user_param argument to validate_signed_request_data function.

Default name of the (GET) param holding the valid_until value is valid_until. If you want it to be different, provide a valid_until_param argument to validate_signed_request_data function.

With all customisations, it would look as follows.

>>> validation_result = validate_signed_request_data(
>>>     data = request.GET,
>>>     secret_key = 'your-secret_key',
>>>     signature_param='signature',
>>>     auth_user_param='auth_user', \
>>>     valid_until_param='valid_until'
>>> )

If you for some reason prefer a lower level implementation, read the same section in the Advanced usage chapter.

Command line usage

It's possible to generate a signed URL from command line using the ska.generate_signed_url module.

Arguments:
>>>  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
>>>
>>>  -au AUTH_USER, --auth-user AUTH_USER
>>>                        `auth_user` value
>>>
>>>  -sk SECRET_KEY, --secret-key SECRET_KEY
>>>                        `secret_key` value
>>>
>>>  -vu VALID_UNTIL, --valid-until VALID_UNTIL
>>>                        `valid_until` value
>>>
>>>  -l LIFETIME, --lifetime LIFETIME
>>>                        `lifetime` value
>>>
>>>  -u URL, --url URL     URL to sign
>>>
>>>  -sp SIGNATURE_PARAM, --signature-param SIGNATURE_PARAM
>>>                        (GET) param holding the `signature` value
>>>
>>>  -aup AUTH_USER_PARAM, --auth-user-param AUTH_USER_PARAM
>>>                        (GET) param holding the `auth_user` value
>>>
>>>  -vup VALID_UNTIL_PARAM, --valid-until-param VALID_UNTIL_PARAM
>>>                        (GET) param holding the `auth_user` value
Example:$ python src/ska/generate_signed_url.py -au user -sk your-secret-key

Advanced usage (low-level)

Client side

Required imports.

>>> from ska import Signature, RequestHelper

Generate a signature.

>>> signature = Signature.generate_signature(
>>>     auth_user = 'user',
>>>     secret_key = 'your-secret-key'
>>>     )

Default lifetime of a signature is 10 minutes (600 seconds). If you want it to be different, provide a lifetime argument to generate_signature method.

>>> signature = Signature.generate_signature(
>>>     auth_user = 'user',
>>>     secret_key = 'your-secret-key',
>>>     lifetime = 120 # Signatre lifetime set to 120 seconds.
>>>     )

Your endpoint operates with certain param names and you need to wrap generated signature params into the URL. In order to have the job done in an easy way, create a request helper. Feed names of the (GET) params to the request helper and let it make a signed endpoint URL for you.

>>> request_helper = RequestHelper(
>>>     signature_param = 'signature',
>>>     auth_user_param = 'auth_user',
>>>     valid_until_param = 'valid_until'
>>> )

Append signature params to the endpoint URL.

>>> signed_url = request_helper.signature_to_url(
>>>     signature = signature,
>>>     endpoint_url = 'http://e.com/api/'
>>> )
http://e.com/api/?valid_until=1378045287.0&auth_user=user&signature=YlZpLFsjUKBalL4x5trhkeEgqE8%3D

Make a request.

>>> import requests
>>> r = requests.get(signed_url)

Server side

Required imports.

>>> from ska import RequestHelper

Create a request helper. Your endpoint operates with certain param names. In order to have the job done in an easy way, we feed those params to the request helper and let it extract data from signed request for us.

>>> request_helper = RequestHelper(
>>>     signature_param = 'signature',
>>>     auth_user_param = 'auth_user',
>>>     valid_until_param = 'valid_until'
>>> )

Validate the request data. Note, that request.GET is given just as an example.

>>> validation_result = request_helper.validate_request_data(
>>>     data = request.GET,
>>>     secret_key = 'your-secret-key'
>>> )

Your implementation further depends on you, but may look as follows.

>>> if validation_result.result:
>>>     # Validated, proceed further
>>>     # ...
>>> else:
>>>     # Validation not passed.
>>>     raise Http404(validation_result.reason)

You can also just validate the signature by calling validate_signature method of the ska.Signature.

>>> Signature.validate_signature(
>>>     signature = 'EBS6ipiqRLa6TY5vxIvZU30FpnM=',
>>>     auth_user = 'user',
>>>     secret_key = 'your-secret-key',
>>>     valid_until = '1377997396.0'
>>>     )

Django integration

'ska` comes with Django model- and view-decorators for producing signed URLs and and validating the endpoints.

Secret key (str) must be defined in settings module of your project.

>>> SKA_SECRET_KEY = 'my-secret-key'

The following variables can be overridden in settings module of your project.

  • SKA_UNAUTHORISED_REQUEST_ERROR_MESSAGE (str): Plain text error message. Defaults to "Unauthorised request. {0}".
  • SKA_UNAUTHORISED_REQUEST_ERROR_TEMPLATE (str): Path to 401 template that should be rendered in case of 401 responses. Defaults to empty string (not provided).
  • SKA_AUTH_USER (str): The auth_user argument for ska.sign_url function. Defaults to "ska-auth-user".

See the (https://github.com/barseghyanartur/ska/tree/stable/example) for a working example project.

Django model method decorator sign_url

This is most likely be used in module models (models.py).

Imagine, you have a some objects listing and you want to protect the URLs to be viewed by authorised parties only. You would then use get_signed_absolute_url method when rendering the listing (HTML).

>>> from django.db import models
>>> from django.utils.translation import ugettext_lazy as _
>>> from django.core.urlresolvers import reverse
>>>
>>> from ska.contrib.django.ska.decorators import sign_url
>>>
>>> class FooItem(models.Model):
>>>     title = models.CharField(_("Title"), max_length=100)
>>>     slug = models.SlugField(unique=True, verbose_name=_("Slug"))
>>>     body = models.TextField(_("Body"))
>>>
>>>     # Unsigned absolute URL, which goes to the foo item detail page.
>>>     def get_absolute_url(self):
>>>         return reverse('foo.detail', kwargs={'slug': self.slug})
>>>
>>>     # Signed absolute URL, which goes to the foo item detail page.
>>>     @sign_url()
>>>     def get_signed_absolute_url(self):
>>>         return reverse('foo.detail', kwargs={'slug': self.slug})

Note, that sign_url decorator accepts the following optional arguments.

  • auth_user (str): Username of the user making the request.
  • secret_key: The shared secret key. If set, overrides the SKA_SECRET_KEY variable set in the settings module of your project.
  • valid_until (float or str ): Unix timestamp. If not given, generated automatically (now + lifetime).
  • lifetime (int): Signature lifetime in seconds.
  • suffix (str): Suffix to add after the endpoint_url and before the appended signature params.
  • signature_param (str): Name of the GET param name which would hold the generated signature value.
  • auth_user_param (str): Name of the GET param name which would hold the auth_user value.
  • valid_until_param (str): Name of the GET param name which would hold the valid_until value.

Django view decorator validate_signed_request

To be used to protect views (file views.py). Should be applied to views (endpoints) that require signed requests. If checks are not successful, a ska.contrib.django.ska.http.HttpResponseUnauthorized is returned, which is a subclass of Django's django.http.HttpResponse. You can provide your own template for 401 error. Simply point the SKA_UNAUTHORISED_REQUEST_ERROR_TEMPLATE in settings module to the right template. See ska/contrib/django/ska/templates/ska/401.html as a template example.

>>> from ska.contrib.django.ska.decorators import validate_signed_request
>>>
>>> # Your view that shall be protected
>>> @validate_signed_request()
>>> def detail(request, slug, template_name='foo/detail.html'):
>>>     # Your code

Note, that validate_signed_request decorator accepts the following optional arguments.

  • secret_key (str) : The shared secret key. If set, overrides the SKA_SECRET_KEY variable set in the settings module of your project.
  • signature_param (str): Name of the (for example GET or POST) param name which holds the signature value.
  • auth_user_param (str): Name of the (for example GET or POST) param name which holds the auth_user value.
  • valid_until_param (str): Name of the (foe example GET or POST) param name which holds the valid_until value.

License

GPL 2.0/LGPL 2.1

Support

For any issues contact me at the e-mail given in the Author section.

Author

Artur Barseghyan <artur.barseghyan@gmail.com>

 
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