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smsframework 0.0.2-1

Bi-directional SMS gateway with pluggable providers

Latest Version: 0.0.3-1

|Build Status|

SMSframework
============

SMS framework with pluggable providers.

Key features:

-  Send messages
-  Receive messages
-  Delivery confirmations
-  Handle multiple pluggable providers with a single gateway
-  Synchronous message receipt through events
-  Reliable message handling
-  Supports provider APIs (like getting the balance)
-  Providers use `Flask microframework <http://flask.pocoo.org>`__ for
   message receivers (not required)
-  0 dependencies
-  Unit-tested

Table of Contents
=================

-  Supported Providers
-  Installation
-  Gateway

   -  Providers

      -  Gateway.add\_provider(name, Provider, \*\*config):IProvider
      -  Gateway.default\_provider
      -  Gateway.get\_provider(name):IProvider

   -  Sending Messages

      -  Gateway.send(message):OutgoingMessage

   -  Event Hooks

      -  Gateway.onSend
      -  Gateway.onReceive
      -  Gateway.onStatus

-  Data Objects

   -  IncomingMessage
   -  OutgoingMessage
   -  MessageStatus
   -  Exceptions

-  Provider HTTP Receivers

   -  Gateway.receiver\_blueprint\_for(name): flask.Blueprint
   -  Gateway.receiver\_blueprints():(name, flask.Blueprint)\*
   -  Gateway.receiver\_blueprints\_register(app,
      prefix='/'):flask.Flask

-  Message Routing
-  Bundled Providers

   -  NullProvider
   -  LogProvider
   -  LoopbackProvider

      -  LoopbackProvider.get\_traffic():list
      -  LoopbackProvider.received(src, body):IncomingMessage
      -  LoopbackProvider.subscribe(number, callback):IProvider

Supported Providers
===================

SMSframework supports the following bundled providers:

-  `log <#logprovider>`__: log provider for testing. Bundled.
-  `null <#nullprovider>`__: null provider for testing. Bundled.
-  `loopback <#loopbackprovider>`__: loopback provider for testing.
   Bundled.

Supported providers list:

-  `Clickatell <https://github.com/kolypto/py-smsframework-clickatell>`__
-  Expecting more!

Also see the `full list of
providers <https://pypi.python.org/pypi?%3Aaction=search&term=smsframework>`__.

Installation
============

Install from pypi:

::

    $ pip install smsframework

Install with some additional providers:

::

    $ pip install smsframework[clickatell]

To receive SMS messages, you need to ensure that `Flask
microframework <http://flask.pocoo.org>`__ is also installed:

::

    $ pip install smsframework[clickatell,receiver]

Gateway
=======

SMSframework handles the whole messaging thing with a single *Gateway*
object.

Let's start with initializing a gateway:

.. code:: python

    from smsframework import Gateway

    gateway = Gateway()

The ``Gateway()`` constructor currently has no arguments.

Providers
---------

A *Provider* is a package which implements the logic for a specific SMS
provider.

Each provider reside in an individual package ``smsframework_*``. You'll
probably want to install `some of these <#supported-providers>`__ first.

Gateway.add\_provider(name, Provider, \*\*config):IProvider
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Register a provider on the gateway

Arguments:

-  ``provider: str`` Provider name that will be used to uniquely
   identify it
-  ``Provider: type`` Provider class that inherits from
   ``smsframework.IProvider`` You'll use this string in order to send
   messages via a specific provider.
-  ``**config`` Provider configuration. Please refer to the Provider
   documentation.

.. code:: python

    from smsframework.providers import NullProvider
    from smsframework_clickatell import ClickatellProvider

    gateway.add_provider('main', ClickatellProvider)  # the default ont
    gateway.add_provider('null', NullProvider)

The first provider defined becomes the default one: used in case the
routing function has no better idea. See: `Message
Routing <#message-routing>`__.

Gateway.default\_provider
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Property which contains the default provider name. You can change it to
something else:

.. code:: python

    gateway.default_provider = 'null'

Gateway.get\_provider(name):IProvider
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Get a provider by name

You don't normally need this, unless the provider has some public API:
refer to the provider documentation for the details.

Sending Messages
----------------

Gateway.send(message):OutgoingMessage
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

To send a message, you first create the
```OutgoingMessage`` <#outgoingmessage>`__ object and then pass it as
the first argument.

Arguments:

-  ``message: OutgoingMessage``: The messasge to send

Exceptions:

-  ``AssertionError``: Wrong provider name encountered (returned by the
   router, or provided to OutgoingMessage)
-  ``ProviderError``: Generic provider error
-  ``ConnectionError``: Connection failed
-  ``MessageSendError``: Generic sending error
-  ``RequestError``: Request error: likely, validation errors
-  ``UnsupportedError``: The requested operation is not supported
-  ``ServerError``: Server error: sevice unavailable, etc
-  ``AuthError``: Provider authentication failed
-  ``LimitsError``: Sending limits exceeded
-  ``CreditError``: Not enough money on the account

Returns: the same ``OutgoingMessage``, with some additional fields
populated: ``msgid``, ``meta``, ..

.. code:: python

    from smsframework import OutgoingMessage

    msg = gateway.send(OutgoingMessage('+123456789', 'hi there!'))

A message sending fail when the provider raises an exception. This
typically occurs when the wrapped HTTP API has returned an immediate
error. Note that some errors occur later, and are typically reported
with status messages: see ```MessageStatus`` <#messagestatus>`__

Event Hooks
-----------

The ``Gateway`` object has three events you can subscribe to.

The event is a simple object that implements the ``+=`` and ``-=``
operators which allow you to subscribe to the event and unsubscribe
respectively.

Event hook is a python callable which accepts arguments explained in the
further sections.

Note that if you accidentally replace the hook with a callable (using
the ``=`` operator instead of ``+=``), you'll end up having a single
hook, but smsframework will continue to work normally: thanks to the
implementation.

See smsframework/lib/events.py.

Gateway.onSend
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Outgoing Message: a message that was successfully sent.

Arguments:

-  ``message: OutgoingMessage``: The message that was sent. See
   `OutgoingMessage <#outgoingmessage>`__.

The message object is populated with the additional information from the
provider, namely, the ``msgid`` and ``meta`` fields.

Note that if the hook raises an Exception, it will propagate to the
place where ``Gateway.send()`` was called!

.. code:: python

    def on_send(message):
        """ :type message: OutgoingMessage """
        print message

    gw.onSend += on_send

Gateway.onReceive
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Incoming Message: a message that was received from the provider.

Arguments:

-  ``message: IncomingMessage``: The received message. See
   `IncomingMessage <#incomingmessage>`__.

Note that if the hook raises an Exception, the Provider will report the
error to the sms service. Most services will retry the message delivery
with increasing delays.

.. code:: python

    def on_receive(message):
        """ :type message: IncomingMessage """
        print message

    gw.onReceive += on_receive

Gateway.onStatus
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Message Status: a message status reported by the provider.

A status report is only delivered when explicitly requested with
``OutgoingMessage.options(status_report=True)``.

Arguments:

-  ``status: MessageStatus``: The status info. See
   `MessageStatus <#messagestatus>`__ and its subclasses.

Note that if the hook raises an Exception, the Provider will report the
error to the sms service. Most services will retry the status delivery
with increasing delays.

.. code:: python

    def on_status(status):
        """ :type status: MessageStatus """
        print status

    gw.onStatys += status

Data Objects
============

SMSframework uses the following objects to represent message flows.

Note that internally all non-digit characters are removed from all phone
numbers, both outgoing and incoming. Phone numbers are typically
provided in international formats, though some local providers may be
less strict with this.

IncomingMessage
---------------

A messsage received from the provider.

Source: smsframework/data/IncomingMessage.py.

OutgoingMessage
---------------

A message being sent.

Source: smsframework/data/OutgoingMessage.py.

MessageStatus
-------------

A status report received from the provider.

Source: smsframework/data/MessageStatus.py.

Exceptions
----------

Source: smsframework/exc.py.

Provider HTTP Receivers
=======================

Note: the whole receiver feature is optional. Skip this section if you
only need to send messages.

In order to receive messages, most providers need an HTTP handler.

To get standardized, by default providers use `Flask
microframework <http://flask.pocoo.org>`__ for this: a provider defines
a `Blueprint <http://flask.pocoo.org/docs/blueprints/>`__ which can be
registered on your Flask application as the receiver endpoint.

The resources are provider-dependent: refer to the provider
documentation for the details. The recommended approach is to use
``/im`` for incoming messages, and ``/status`` for status reports.

Gateway.receiver\_blueprint\_for(name): flask.Blueprint
-------------------------------------------------------

Get a Flask blueprint for the named provider that handles incoming
messages & status reports.

Returns: `flask.Blueprint <http://flask.pocoo.org/docs/blueprints/>`__

Errors:

-  ``KeyError``: provider not found
-  ``NotImplementedError``: Provider does not implement a receiver

This method is mostly internal, as the following ones are usually much
more convenient.

Gateway.receiver\_blueprints():(name, flask.Blueprint)\*
--------------------------------------------------------

Get Flask blueprints for every provider that supports it.

The method is a generator that yields ``(name, blueprint)`` tuples,
where ``blueprint`` is ``flask.Blueprint`` for provider named ``name``.

Use this method to register your receivers manually:

.. code:: python

    from flask import Flask

    app = Flask()

    for name, bp in gateway.receiver_blueprints():
        app.register_blueprint(bp, url_prefix='/sms/'+name)

With the example above, each receivers will be registered under */name*
prefix.

Assuming the *'clickatell'* provider defines */im* and */status*
receivers and your app is running on *http://localhost:5000/*, you will
configure the SMS service to send messages to:

-  http://localhost:5000/sms/clickatell/im
-  http://localhost:5000/sms/clickatell/status

Gateway.receiver\_blueprints\_register(app, prefix='/'):flask.Flask
-------------------------------------------------------------------

Register all provider receivers on the provided Flask application under
'/{prefix}/provider-name'.

This is a convenience method to register all blueprints at once using
the following recommended rules:

-  If ``prefix`` is provided, all blueprints are registered under this
   prefix
-  Provider receivers are registered under '/provider-name' path

It's adviced to mount the receivers under some difficult-to-guess
prefix: otherwise, attackers can send fake messages into your system!

Secure example:

.. code:: js

    gateway.receiver_blueprints_register(app, '/24fb0d6963f/');

NOTE: Other mechanisms, such as basic authentication, are not typically
useful as some services do not support that.

Message Routing
===============

SMSframework requires you to explicitly specify the provider for each
message: otherwise, it uses the first defined provider by default.

In real world conditions with multiple providers, you may want a router
function that decides on which provider to use and which options to
pick.

In order to achieve flexible message routing, we need to associate some
metadata with each message, for instance:

-  ``module``: name of the sending module: e.g. "users"
-  ``type``: type of the message: e.g. "notification"

These 2 arbitrary strings need to be standardized in the application
code, thus offering the possibility to define complex routing rules.

When creating the message, use ``OutgoingMessage.route()`` function to
specify these values:

.. code:: python

    gateway.send(OutgoingMessage('+1234', 'hi').route('users', 'notification'))

Now, set a router function on the gateway: a function which gets an
outgoing message + some additional routing values, and decides on the
provider to use:

.. code:: python

    gateway.add_provider('primary', ClickatellProvider, ...)
    gateway.add_provider('quick', ClickatellProvider, ...)
    gateway.add_provider('usa', ClickatellProvider, ...)

    def router(message, module, type):
        """ Custom router function """
        if message.dst.startswith('1'):
            return 'usa'  # Use 'usa' for all messages sent to the United States
        elif type == 'notification':
            return 'quick'  # use the 'quick' for all notifications
        else:
            return None  # Use the default provider ('primary') for everything else

        self.gw.router = router

Router function is also the right place to specify provider-specific
options.

Bundled Providers
=================

The following providers are bundled with SMSframework and thus require
no additional packages.

NullProvider
------------

Source: smsframework/providers/null.py

The ``'null'`` provider just ignores all outgoing messages.

Configuration: none

Sending: does nothing, but increments message.msgid

Receipt: Not implemented

Status: Not implemented

.. code:: python

    from smsframework.providers import NullProvider

    gw.add_provider('null', NullProvider)

LogProvider
-----------

Source: smsframework/providers/log.py

Logs the outgoing messages to a python logger provided as the config
option.

Configuration:

-  ``logger: logging.Logger``: The logger to use

Sending: does nothing, increments message.msgid, prints the message to
the log

Receipt: Not implemented

Status: Not implemented

Example:

.. code:: python

    import logging
    from smsframework.providers import LogProvider

    gw.add_provider('log', LogProvider, logger=logging.getLogger(__name__))

LoopbackProvider
----------------

Source: smsframework/providers/loopback.py

The ``'loopback'`` provider is used as a dummy for testing purposes.

All messages are stored in the local log and can be retrieved as a list.

The provider even supports status & delivery notifications.

In addition, is supports virtual subscribers: callbacks bound to some
phone numbers which are called when any simulated message is sent to
their phone number. Replies are also supported!

Configuration: none

Sending: sends message to a registered subscriber (see:
:meth:``LoopbackProvider.subscribe``), silently ignores other messages.

Receipt: simulation with a method

Status: always reports success

LoopbackProvider.get\_traffic():list
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

LoopbackProvider stores all messages that go through it: both
IncomingMessage and OutgoingMessage.

To get those messages, call ``.get_traffic()``. This method empties the
message log and returns its previous state:

.. code:: python

    from smsframework.providers import LoopbackProvider

    gateway.add_provider('lo', LoopbackProvider);
    gateway.send(OutgoingMessage('+123', 'hi'))

    traffic = gateway.get_provider('lo').get_traffic()
    print traffic[0].body  #-> 'hi'

LoopbackProvider.received(src, body):IncomingMessage
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Simulate an incoming message.

The message is reported to the Gateway as if it has been received from
the sms service.

Arguments:

-  ``src: str``: Source number
-  ``body: str | unicode``: Message text

Returns: IncomingMessage

LoopbackProvider.subscribe(number, callback):IProvider
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Register a virtual subscriber which receives messages to the matching
number.

Arguments:

-  ``number: str``: Subscriber phone number
-  ``callback:``: A ``callback(OutgoingMessage)`` which handles the
   messages directed to the subscriber. The message object is augmented
   with the ``.reply(str)`` method which allows to send a reply easily!

.. code:: python

    def subscriber(message):
        print message  #-> OutgoingMessage('1', 'obey me')
        message.reply('got it')  # use the augmented reply method

    provider = gateway.get_provider('lo')
    provider.subscribe('+1', subscriber)  # register the subscriber

    gateway.send('+1', 'obey me')

.. |Build Status| image:: https://api.travis-ci.org/kolypto/py-smsframework.png?branch=master
   :target: https://travis-ci.org/kolypto/py-smsframework
 
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