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tolerance 0.1.2

A function decorator which makes a function tolerant (the function fail silently).

Author
Alisue <lambdalisue@hashnote.net>
Supported python versions
2.6, 2.7, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4

Do you often write the fail silent codes like below?

try:
    # do what ever you need...
    return "foo"
except:
    # fail silently
    return ""

This kind of codes are often found in Django projects or programs which should not raise any exceptions in product mode.

tolerance is a function decorator to make a tolerant function; a function which does not raise any exceptions even there are exceptions. This concept is quite useful for making stable product or prefer_int types of code described in Usage section.

Check online documentation for more details.

Features

  • Convert a function to a tolerant function
  • The decorated function returns substitute (Default is None) when it is not callable. The function returns a “returned value” from substitute function when it is callable.
  • Ignoreing exceptions can be specified as a exception class list with exceptions argument.
  • When fail_silently=False is passed to the decorated function, the function does not ignore exceptions (the argument name can be changed with making switch function via argument_switch_generator function).

Installation

Use pip like:

$ pip install tolerance

Usage

Assume that you need a function which convert a string to an integer when it is possible. Without tolerance, you need to write a code like below

>>> # without tolerance
>>> def prefer_int_withot_tolerance(x):
...     try:
...         return int(x)
...     except:
...         # fail silently
...         return x
>>> prefer_int_withot_tolerance(0)
0
>>> prefer_int_withot_tolerance('0')
0
>>> prefer_int_withot_tolerance('zero')
'zero'

However, with tolerance, you just need to write a single line code like

>>> from tolerance import tolerate
>>> prefer_int = tolerate(lambda x: x)(int)
>>> prefer_int(0)
0
>>> prefer_int('0')
0
>>> prefer_int('zero')
'zero'

Or you can use tolerate as a function decorator described in PEP-318

>>> from tolerance import tolerate
>>> @tolerate(lambda x: x)
... def prefer_int_318(x):
...     return int(x)
>>> prefer_int_318(0)
0
>>> prefer_int_318('0')
0
>>> prefer_int_318('zero')
'zero'

The example codes above specify substitute argument of tolerate function to specify the returning value when the function has failed ( lambda x: x part). tolerate function takes several arguments to configure the function behavior. These arguments are explained in Case study and detailed in API documentation.

Change log

Version 0.1.0
  • Initial development
  • Manually tested with Python 2.4, 2.5, 2.7, 3.2, 3.3
Version 0.1.1
  • switch shortcut feature is added
  • Drop off supporting Python 2.4 and 2.5
  • Support Python 3.2 and 3.3 via 2to3
  • Use tox for testing

Case study

Q. How can I return the default value when the function fail?

  1. Use substitute argument to specify the default value like
>>> from tolerance import tolerate
>>> @tolerate(substitute='foo')
... def raise_exception():
...     raise Exception
>>> raise_exception()
'foo'

Q. How can I change the default value depends on passed arguments?

  1. Specify substitute argument as a function
>>> from tolerance import tolerate
>>> def substitute_function(*args, **kwargs):
...     # do what ever you need, this example simply return 1st argument
...     return args[0]
>>> @tolerate(substitute=substitute_function)
... def raise_exception(*args):
...     raise Exception
>>> raise_exception('bar', 'hoge')
'bar'

Q. How can I make the function to ignore only several exceptions?

  1. Use exceptions argument to specify exceptions which will be ignored.
>>> from tolerance import tolerate
>>> exceptions_ignored = (
...     AttributeError,
...     ValueError,
... )
>>> @tolerate(exceptions=exceptions_ignored)
... def raise_exception(x):
...     if x == 0:
...         raise AttributeError
...     elif x == 1:
...         raise ValueError
...     else:
...         raise KeyError
>>> raise_exception(0) is None
True
>>> raise_exception(1) is None
True
>>> raise_exception(2)
Traceback (most recent call last):
    ...
KeyError

Q. How can I disable ignoreing exceptions in the decorated function?

  1. Pass fail_silently=False to the decorated function.
>>> from tolerance import tolerate
>>> @tolerate()
... def raise_exception():
...     raise KeyError
>>> raise_exception() is None
True
>>> raise_exception(fail_silently=False)
Traceback (most recent call last):
    ...
KeyError

You can change the attribute name with specifing new switch function. It will be explained below.

Q. How can I disable ignoreing exceptions globally?

  1. Set tolerate.disabled = True to disable tolerance globally.
>>> from tolerance import tolerate
>>> @tolerate()
... def raise_exception():
...     raise KeyError
>>> raise_exception() is None
True
>>> tolerate.disabled = True
>>> raise_exception()
Traceback (most recent call last):
    ...
KeyError
>>> # rollback
>>> tolerate.disabled = False

Q. How can I disable ignoreing exceptions in complex mannar?

  1. Use switch argument to specify switch function.
>>> from tolerance import tolerate
>>> DEBUG = False
>>> def switch_function(*args, **kwargs):
...     # do what ever you need, this sample check kwargs and DEBUG
...     # remove 'fail_silently' attribute and store
...     fail_silently = kwargs.pop('fail_silently', True)
...     if DEBUG or not fail_silently:
...         # do not ignore exceptions. note that kwargs which does not
...         # have 'fail_silently' is returned back.
...         return False, args, kwargs
...     # do ignore exceptions. note that kwargs which does not have
...     # 'fail_silently' is returned back.
...     return True, args, kwargs
>>> @tolerate(switch=switch_function)
... def raise_exception():
...     raise KeyError
>>> raise_exception() is None
True
>>> raise_exception(fail_silently=False)
Traceback (most recent call last):
    ...
KeyError
>>> DEBUG = True
>>> raise_exception()
Traceback (most recent call last):
    ...
KeyError

Q. I just want to change the attribute name, making switch function is too complicated

  1. Use argument_switch_generator to make switch function.
>>> from tolerance import tolerate
>>> from tolerance import argument_switch_generator
>>> switch_function = argument_switch_generator('quiet')
>>> @tolerate(switch=switch_function)
... def raise_exception():
...     raise KeyError
>>> raise_exception() is None
True
>>> # you can use `quiet=False` instead of `fail_silently`
>>> raise_exception(quiet=False)
Traceback (most recent call last):
    ...
KeyError
>>> # raise_exception does not know fail_silently so ignore
>>> raise_exception(fail_silently=False) is None
True
>>> #
>>> # From Version 0.1.1
>>> #
>>> @tolerate(switch='quiet')
... def raise_exception():
...     raise KeyError
>>> raise_exception() is None
True
>>> raise_exception(quiet=False)
Traceback (most recent call last):
    ...
KeyError
>>> raise_exception(fail_silently=False) is None
True

Note

From Version 0.1.1, you can simply specify the argument name to switch argument and then tolerant function will call argument_switch_generator internally with the specified name.

See detailed informations on API documentation

Q. I want to make the function ignoreing exceptions only when fail_silently=True is passed

  1. Use default argument to tell argument_switch_generator function
>>> from tolerance import tolerate
>>> from tolerance import argument_switch_generator
>>> switch_function = argument_switch_generator('fail_silently', default=False)
>>> @tolerate(switch=switch_function)
... def raise_exception():
...     raise KeyError
>>> raise_exception() is None
Traceback (most recent call last):
    ...
KeyError
>>> raise_exception(fail_silently=True) is None
True
>>> #
>>> # From Version 0.1.1
>>> #
>>> @tolerate(switch=[None, False])
... def raise_exception():
...     raise KeyError
>>> raise_exception() is None
Traceback (most recent call last):
    ...
KeyError
>>> @tolerate(switch={'default': False})
... def raise_exception():
...     raise KeyError
>>> raise_exception() is None
Traceback (most recent call last):
    ...
KeyError

Note

From Version 0.1.1, you can simply specify *args or **kwargs of argument_switch_generator to switch argument and tolerant function will call argument_switch_generator internally with the specified arguments.

See detailed informations on API documentation

Q. I want to disable the ignoreing exceptions when verbose=False is passed

  1. Use reverse argument to tell argument_switch_generator function
>>> from tolerance import tolerate
>>> from tolerance import argument_switch_generator
>>> switch_function = argument_switch_generator('verbose', reverse=True)
>>> @tolerate(switch=switch_function)
... def raise_exception():
...     raise KeyError
>>> raise_exception() is None
True
>>> raise_exception(verbose=True)
Traceback (most recent call last):
    ...
KeyError
>>> #
>>> # From Version 0.1.1
>>> #
>>> @tolerate(switch={'argument_name': 'verbose', 'reverse': True})
... def raise_exception():
...     raise KeyError
>>> raise_exception() is None
True
>>> raise_exception(verbose=True)
Traceback (most recent call last):
    ...
KeyError

Q. I want to use fail_silently argument even in decorated function

  1. Use keep argument to tell argument_switch_generator function
>>> from tolerance import tolerate
>>> from tolerance import argument_switch_generator
>>> switch_function = argument_switch_generator('fail_silently', keep=True)
>>> @tolerate(switch=switch_function)
... def raise_exception(**kwargs):
...     if 'fail_silently' in kwargs:
...         raise KeyError
...     return 'Failed!'
>>> raise_exception(fail_silently=True) is None
True
>>> raise_exception(fail_silently=False)
Traceback (most recent call last):
    ...
KeyError
>>> #
>>> # From Version 0.1.1
>>> #
>>> @tolerate(switch={'keep': True})
... def raise_exception(**kwargs):
...     if 'fail_silently' in kwargs:
...         raise KeyError
...     return 'Failed!'
>>> raise_exception(fail_silently=True) is None
True
>>> raise_exception(fail_silently=False)
Traceback (most recent call last):
    ...
KeyError
 
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