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web.db 2.0.1

General database adapter layer for common configuration and operation.

© 2009-2016 Alice Bevan-McGregor and contributors.
https://github.com/marrow/web.db

Introduction

Database access is often central to any web application or service. To offer the maximum flexibility, the WebCore web framework uses a light-weight yet highly modular and fully dependency graphed extension system. The database connection layer passes through the full capability of this extension system down to an organized and named collection of database interfaces.

This extension is available with the name db in the web.ext plugin namespace.

This extension adds a db server and request context attribute.

This extension provides the sqlalchemy, mongoengine, dbapi, and sqlite3 plugins in the web.db plugin namespace.

Installation

Installing web.db is easy, just execute the following in a terminal:

pip install web.db

Note: We strongly recommend always using a container, virtualization, or sandboxing environment of some kind when developing using Python; installing things system-wide is yucky (for a variety of reasons) nine times out of ten. We prefer light-weight virtualenv, others prefer solutions as robust as Vagrant.

If you add web.db to the install_requires argument of the call to setup() in your application’s setup.py file, this extension will be automatically installed and made available when your own application or library is installed. We recommend using “less than” version numbers to ensure there are no unintentional side-effects when updating. Use web.db<2.1` to get all bugfixes for the current release, and ``web.db<3.0 to get bugfixes and feature updates while ensuring that large breaking changes are not installed.

There are a few “extras” you can require (by adding a comma separated list of these tags within square brackets after the dependency name, e.g.: web.db[foo,bar]

  • development - installs all testing requirements and optional components
  • sql - installs SQLAlchemy
  • mongoengine - installs MongoEngine (Note: this engine is not yet production quality.)

Development Version

Development takes place on GitHub in the web.db project. Issue tracking, documentation, and downloads are provided there.

Installing the current development version requires Git, a distributed source code management system. If you have Git you can run the following to download and link the development version into your Python runtime:

git clone https://github.com/marrow/web.db.git
pip install -e 'web.db[development]'

You can then upgrade to the latest version at any time:

(cd web.db; git pull; pip install -U -e '.[development]')

If you would like to make changes and contribute them back to the project, fork the GitHub project, make your changes, and submit a pull request. This process is beyond the scope of this documentation; for more information see GitHub’s documentation.

Usage

The web.db extension (providing the db feature flag for extension dependency graphing and plugin with that name in the web.ext namespace) is utilized in a few different contexts.

Configuration

This happens before the web application has “started” and is ready to service requests. You enable the extension by including an instance of it in the extensions argument to the instantiation of a web.core:Application object:

from web.ext.db import DatabaseExtension

app = Application("Hi.", extensions=[
        DatabaseExtension(),
    ])

The initializer for the database extension uses the arguments provided to declare named database interfaces, which you instantiate and pass in by name. Additionally, the name default has special meaning, and may be passed as the first (and only) positional parameter.

Application

At the application context, that is, in extension callbacks where the context is an ApplicationContext object, outside of the request cycle, a db attribute is added to contain any contributions made by database adapters.

Please refer to the documentation for individual adapters as to what values they assign for themselves and when.

Adapters

There is a limited set of adapters provided built-in.

Native DB API 2.0

Many SQL or SQL-like database adapters in Python are available which expose a PEP 249 DB API 2.0-compliant interface. These can be utilized directly once a few properties of the adapter are known.

First, you need to know the location of the adapter’s connect function. Pass this as the first positional argument to the DBAPIConnection constructor as a string in dot-colon notation. The second positional argument is the URI to pass through as the target to connect the engine to. Behaviour may vary from adapter to adapter.

As an example, Python often ships with an adapter for SQLite. You might utilize it by initializing your application with this extension arrangement:

from web.ext.db import DatabaseExtension
from web.db.dbapi import DBAPIConnection

app = Application("Hi.", extensions=[
        DatabaseExtension(DBAPIConnection(
                'sqlite3:connect',  # A dot-colon path, module:name.
                ':memory:',  # Use the in-memory temporary store.
            ))
    ])

Because this engine is built-in and common, a shortcut is provided by way of the SQLite3Connection subclass:

from web.ext.db import DatabaseExtension
from web.db.dbapi import SQLite3Connection

app = Application("Hi.", extensions=[
        DatabaseExtension(SQLite3Connection(':memory:'))
    ])

Either way, additional keyword arguments are passed along through to the underlying connect function. For the generic adapter, two additional arguments have a significant impact on when the interface performs actions.

If safe is truthy (the default) then the adapter is treated as thread safe. It is “connected” on application start and “disconnected” on application shutdown. Otherwise the interface is “connected” at the beginning of a request and “disconnected” at the end of the request, after all content has been returned to the user.

SQLAlchemy

During startup, you can utilize the SQLAlchemy engine object contained within the context to perform global-level operations such as DDL manipulation. One such example with an SQLAlchemy adapter configured as the defualt interface would be:

class ApplicationExtension:
    needs = {'db'}

    def start(self, context):
        SomeDeclarativeBase.metadata.create_all(context.db.default)

Within the context of a request, the interface exposed via the context is a request-local scoped session. You can use this to prepare and commit transactions, issue queries, etc.

Currently no transactional behaviour, auto-commit, etc. are supported.

Extending

Writing new adapters is nearly identical to writing WebCore extensions. All of the same rules apply: must be a class, offers callback registration through the use of named methods, can register needs and uses and provides, etc. Please see the WebCore documentation and examples.

The only major difference is that the database interface is expected to populate an attribute or mapping item with a name defined by an alias attribute. Several examples are provided in the source, and are documented so as to provide examples.

Version History

Version 2.0.1

  • Updated the README and metaproject layout to current Marrow standards.
  • Removed extraneous imports and slots where unhelpful or causing issues, such as in the SQLAlchemy adapter. (Thanks bmillham!)
  • Migrated MongoDBConnection from marrow.mongo.

Version 2.0

  • Extract of the database mechanism from WebCore.

Version 1.x

  • Process fully integrated in the WebCore web framework.

License

web.db has been released under the MIT Open Source license.

The MIT License

Copyright © 2009-2016 Alice Bevan-McGregor and contributors.

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the “Software”), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED “AS IS”, WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NON-INFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

 
File Type Py Version Uploaded on Size
web.db-2.0.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl (md5, pgp) Python Wheel 3.5 2016-11-04 30KB
web.db-2.0.1.tar.gz (md5, pgp) Source 2016-11-04 20KB