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zope.component 3.10.0

Zope Component Architecture

Latest Version: 4.2.1

This package is intended to be independently reusable in any Python project. It is maintained by the Zope Toolkit project.

This package represents the core of the Zope Component Architecture. Together with the 'zope.interface' package, it provides facilities for defining, registering and looking up components.

Detailed Documentation

Zope Component Architecture

This package, together with zope.interface, provides facilities for defining, registering and looking up components. There are two basic kinds of components: adapters and utilities.

Utilities

Utilities are just components that provide an interface and that are looked up by an interface and a name. Let's look at a trivial utility definition:

>>> from zope import interface
>>> class IGreeter(interface.Interface):
...     def greet():
...         "say hello"
>>> class Greeter:
...     interface.implements(IGreeter)
...
...     def __init__(self, other="world"):
...         self.other = other
...
...     def greet(self):
...         print "Hello", self.other

We can register an instance this class using provideUtility [1]:

>>> from zope import component
>>> greet = Greeter('bob')
>>> component.provideUtility(greet, IGreeter, 'robert')

In this example we registered the utility as providing the IGreeter interface with a name of 'bob'. We can look the interface up with either queryUtility or getUtility:

>>> component.queryUtility(IGreeter, 'robert').greet()
Hello bob
>>> component.getUtility(IGreeter, 'robert').greet()
Hello bob

queryUtility and getUtility differ in how failed lookups are handled:

>>> component.queryUtility(IGreeter, 'ted')
>>> component.queryUtility(IGreeter, 'ted', 42)
42
>>> component.getUtility(IGreeter, 'ted')
... # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ComponentLookupError: (<InterfaceClass ...IGreeter>, 'ted')

If a component provides only one interface, as in the example above, then we can omit the provided interface from the call to provideUtility:

>>> ted = Greeter('ted')
>>> component.provideUtility(ted, name='ted')
>>> component.queryUtility(IGreeter, 'ted').greet()
Hello ted

The name defaults to an empty string:

>>> world = Greeter()
>>> component.provideUtility(world)
>>> component.queryUtility(IGreeter).greet()
Hello world

Adapters

Adapters are components that are computed from other components to adapt them to some interface. Because they are computed from other objects, they are provided as factories, usually classes. Here, we'll create a greeter for persons, so we can provide personalized greetings for different people:

>>> class IPerson(interface.Interface):
...     name = interface.Attribute("Name")
>>> class PersonGreeter:
...
...     component.adapts(IPerson)
...     interface.implements(IGreeter)
...
...     def __init__(self, person):
...         self.person = person
...
...     def greet(self):
...         print "Hello", self.person.name

The class defines a constructor that takes an argument for every object adapted.

We used component.adapts to declare what we adapt. We can find out if an object declares that it adapts anything using adaptedBy:

>>> list(component.adaptedBy(PersonGreeter)) == [IPerson]
True

If an object makes no declaration, then None is returned:

>>> component.adaptedBy(Greeter()) is None
True

If we declare the interfaces adapted and if we provide only one interface, as in the example above, then we can provide the adapter very simply [1]:

>>> component.provideAdapter(PersonGreeter)

For adapters that adapt a single interface to a single interface without a name, we can get the adapter by simply calling the interface:

>>> class Person:
...     interface.implements(IPerson)
...
...     def __init__(self, name):
...         self.name = name
>>> IGreeter(Person("Sally")).greet()
Hello Sally

We can also provide arguments to be very specific about what how to register the adapter.

>>> class BobPersonGreeter(PersonGreeter):
...     name = 'Bob'
...     def greet(self):
...         print "Hello", self.person.name, "my name is", self.name
>>> component.provideAdapter(
...                        BobPersonGreeter, [IPerson], IGreeter, 'bob')

The arguments can also be provided as keyword arguments:

>>> class TedPersonGreeter(BobPersonGreeter):
...     name = "Ted"
>>> component.provideAdapter(
...     factory=TedPersonGreeter, adapts=[IPerson],
...     provides=IGreeter, name='ted')

For named adapters, use queryAdapter, or getAdapter:

>>> component.queryAdapter(Person("Sally"), IGreeter, 'bob').greet()
Hello Sally my name is Bob
>>> component.getAdapter(Person("Sally"), IGreeter, 'ted').greet()
Hello Sally my name is Ted

If an adapter can't be found, queryAdapter returns a default value and getAdapter raises an error:

>>> component.queryAdapter(Person("Sally"), IGreeter, 'frank')
>>> component.queryAdapter(Person("Sally"), IGreeter, 'frank', 42)
42
>>> component.getAdapter(Person("Sally"), IGreeter, 'frank')
... # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ComponentLookupError: (...Person...>, <...IGreeter>, 'frank')

Adapters can adapt multiple objects:

>>> class TwoPersonGreeter:
...
...     component.adapts(IPerson, IPerson)
...     interface.implements(IGreeter)
...
...     def __init__(self, person, greeter):
...         self.person = person
...         self.greeter = greeter
...
...     def greet(self):
...         print "Hello", self.person.name
...         print "my name is", self.greeter.name
>>> component.provideAdapter(TwoPersonGreeter)

To look up a multi-adapter, use either queryMultiAdapter or getMultiAdapter:

>>> component.queryMultiAdapter((Person("Sally"), Person("Bob")),
...                                  IGreeter).greet()
Hello Sally
my name is Bob

Adapters need not be classes. Any callable will do. We use the adapter decorator (in the Python 2.4 decorator sense) to declare that a callable object adapts some interfaces (or classes):

>>> class IJob(interface.Interface):
...     "A job"
>>> class Job:
...     interface.implements(IJob)
>>> def personJob(person):
...     return getattr(person, 'job', None)
>>> personJob = interface.implementer(IJob)(personJob)
>>> personJob = component.adapter(IPerson)(personJob)

In Python 2.4, the example can be written:

>>> @interface.implementer(IJob)
... @component.adapter(IPerson)
... def personJob(person):
...     return getattr(person, 'job', None)

which looks a bit nicer.

In this example, the personJob function simply returns the person's job attribute if present, or None if it's not present. An adapter factory can return None to indicate that adaptation wasn't possible. Let's register this adapter and try it out:

>>> component.provideAdapter(personJob)
>>> sally = Person("Sally")
>>> IJob(sally) # doctest: +ELLIPSIS
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: ('Could not adapt', ...

The adaptation failed because sally didn't have a job. Let's give her one:

>>> job = Job()
>>> sally.job = job
>>> IJob(sally) is job
True

Subscription Adapters

Unlike regular adapters, subscription adapters are used when we want all of the adapters that adapt an object to a particular adapter.

Consider a validation problem. We have objects and we want to assess whether they meet some sort of standards. We define a validation interface:

>>> class IValidate(interface.Interface):
...     def validate(ob):
...         """Determine whether the object is valid
...
...         Return a string describing a validation problem.
...         An empty string is returned to indicate that the
...         object is valid.
...         """

Perhaps we have documents:

>>> class IDocument(interface.Interface):
...     summary = interface.Attribute("Document summary")
...     body = interface.Attribute("Document text")
>>> class Document:
...     interface.implements(IDocument)
...     def __init__(self, summary, body):
...         self.summary, self.body = summary, body

Now, we may want to specify various validation rules for documents. For example, we might require that the summary be a single line:

>>> class SingleLineSummary:
...     component.adapts(IDocument)
...     interface.implements(IValidate)
...
...     def __init__(self, doc):
...         self.doc = doc
...
...     def validate(self):
...         if '\n' in self.doc.summary:
...             return 'Summary should only have one line'
...         else:
...             return ''

Or we might require the body to be at least 1000 characters in length:

>>> class AdequateLength:
...     component.adapts(IDocument)
...     interface.implements(IValidate)
...
...     def __init__(self, doc):
...         self.doc = doc
...
...     def validate(self):
...         if len(self.doc.body) < 1000:
...             return 'too short'
...         else:
...             return ''

We can register these as subscription adapters [1]:

>>> component.provideSubscriptionAdapter(SingleLineSummary)
>>> component.provideSubscriptionAdapter(AdequateLength)

We can then use the subscribers to validate objects:

>>> doc = Document("A\nDocument", "blah")
>>> [adapter.validate()
...  for adapter in component.subscribers([doc], IValidate)
...  if adapter.validate()]
['Summary should only have one line', 'too short']
>>> doc = Document("A\nDocument", "blah" * 1000)
>>> [adapter.validate()
...  for adapter in component.subscribers([doc], IValidate)
...  if adapter.validate()]
['Summary should only have one line']
>>> doc = Document("A Document", "blah")
>>> [adapter.validate()
...  for adapter in component.subscribers([doc], IValidate)
...  if adapter.validate()]
['too short']

Handlers

Handlers are subscription adapter factories that don't produce anything. They do all of their work when called. Handlers are typically used to handle events.

Event subscribers are different from other subscription adapters in that the caller of event subscribers doesn't expect to interact with them in any direct way. For example, an event publisher doesn't expect to get any return value. Because subscribers don't need to provide an API to their callers, it is more natural to define them with functions, rather than classes. For example, in a document-management system, we might want to record creation times for documents:

>>> import datetime
>>> def documentCreated(event):
...     event.doc.created = datetime.datetime.utcnow()

In this example, we have a function that takes an event and performs some processing. It doesn't actually return anything. This is a special case of a subscription adapter that adapts an event to nothing. All of the work is done when the adapter "factory" is called. We call subscribers that don't actually create anything "handlers". There are special APIs for registering and calling them.

To register the subscriber above, we define a document-created event:

>>> class IDocumentCreated(interface.Interface):
...     doc = interface.Attribute("The document that was created")
>>> class DocumentCreated:
...     interface.implements(IDocumentCreated)
...
...     def __init__(self, doc):
...         self.doc = doc

We'll also change our handler definition to:

>>> def documentCreated(event):
...     event.doc.created = datetime.datetime.utcnow()
>>> documentCreated = component.adapter(IDocumentCreated)(documentCreated)

Note that in Python 2.4, this can be written:

>>> @component.adapter(IDocumentCreated)
... def documentCreated(event):
...     event.doc.created = datetime.datetime.utcnow()

This marks the handler as an adapter of IDocumentCreated events.

Now we'll register the handler [1]:

>>> component.provideHandler(documentCreated)

Now, if we can create an event and use the handle function to call handlers registered for the event:

>>> component.handle(DocumentCreated(doc))
>>> doc.created.__class__.__name__
'datetime'
[1](1, 2, 3, 4) CAUTION: This API should only be used from test or application-setup code. This API shouldn't be used by regular library modules, as component registration is a configuration activity.

Events

The Component Architecture provides a way to dispatch events to event handlers. Event handlers are registered as subscribers a.k.a. handlers.

Before we can start we need to import zope.component.event to make the dispatching effective:

>>> import zope.component.event

Consider two event classes:

>>> class Event1(object):
...     pass
>>> class Event2(Event1):
...     pass

Now consider two handlers for these event classes:

>>> called = []
>>> import zope.component
>>> @zope.component.adapter(Event1)
... def handler1(event):
...     called.append(1)
>>> @zope.component.adapter(Event2)
... def handler2(event):
...     called.append(2)

We can register them with the Component Architecture:

>>> zope.component.provideHandler(handler1)
>>> zope.component.provideHandler(handler2)

Now let's go through the events. We'll see that the handlers have been called accordingly:

>>> from zope.event import notify
>>> notify(Event1())
>>> called
[1]
>>> del called[:]
>>> notify(Event2())
>>> called.sort()
>>> called
[1, 2]

Object events

The objectEventNotify function is a subscriber to dispatch ObjectEvents to interested adapters.

First create an object class:

>>> class IUseless(zope.interface.Interface):
...     """Useless object"""
>>> class UselessObject(object):
...     """Useless object"""
...     zope.interface.implements(IUseless)

Then create an event class:

>>> class IObjectThrownEvent(zope.component.interfaces.IObjectEvent):
...     """An object has been thrown away"""
>>> class ObjectThrownEvent(zope.component.interfaces.ObjectEvent):
...     """An object has been thrown away"""
...     zope.interface.implements(IObjectThrownEvent)

Create an object and an event:

>>> hammer = UselessObject()
>>> event = ObjectThrownEvent(hammer)

Then notify the event to the subscribers. Since the subscribers list is empty, nothing happens.

>>> zope.component.event.objectEventNotify(event)

Now create an handler for the event:

>>> events = []
>>> def record(*args):
...     events.append(args)
>>> zope.component.provideHandler(record, [IUseless, IObjectThrownEvent])

The event is notified to the subscriber:

>>> zope.component.event.objectEventNotify(event)
>>> events == [(hammer, event)]
True

Following test demonstrates how a subscriber can raise an exception to prevent an action.

>>> zope.component.provideHandler(zope.component.event.objectEventNotify)

Let's create a container:

>>> class ToolBox(dict):
...     def __delitem__(self, key):
...         notify(ObjectThrownEvent(self[key]))
...         return super(ToolBox,self).__delitem__(key)
>>> container = ToolBox()

And put the object into the container:

>>> container['Red Hammer'] = hammer

Create an handler function that will raise an error when called:

>>> class Veto(Exception):
...     pass
>>> def callback(item, event):
...     assert(item == event.object)
...     raise Veto

Register the handler:

>>> zope.component.provideHandler(callback, [IUseless, IObjectThrownEvent])

Then if we try to remove the object, an ObjectThrownEvent is fired:

>>> del container['Red Hammer']
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
    raise Veto
Veto

Factories

The Factory Class

>>> from zope.interface import Interface
>>> class IFunction(Interface):
...     pass
>>> class IKlass(Interface):
...     pass
>>> from zope.interface import implements
>>> class Klass(object):
...     implements(IKlass)
...
...     def __init__(self, *args, **kw):
...         self.args = args
...         self.kw = kw
>>> from zope.component.factory import Factory
>>> factory = Factory(Klass, 'Klass', 'Klassier')
>>> factory2 = Factory(lambda x: x, 'Func', 'Function')
>>> factory3 = Factory(lambda x: x, 'Func', 'Function', (IFunction,))

Calling a Factory

Here we test whether the factory correctly creates the objects and including the correct handling of constructor elements.

First we create a factory that creates instanace of the Klass class:

>>> factory = Factory(Klass, 'Klass', 'Klassier')

Now we use the factory to create the instance

>>> kl = factory(1, 2, foo=3, bar=4)

and make sure that the correct class was used to create the object:

>>> kl.__class__
<class 'Klass'>

Since we passed in a couple positional and keyword arguments

>>> kl.args
(1, 2)
>>> kl.kw
{'foo': 3, 'bar': 4}
>>> factory2(3)
3
>>> factory3(3)
3

Title and Description

>>> factory.title
'Klass'
>>> factory.description
'Klassier'
>>> factory2.title
'Func'
>>> factory2.description
'Function'
>>> factory3.title
'Func'
>>> factory3.description
'Function'

Provided Interfaces

>>> implemented = factory.getInterfaces()
>>> implemented.isOrExtends(IKlass)
True
>>> list(implemented)
[<InterfaceClass __builtin__.IKlass>]
>>> implemented2 = factory2.getInterfaces()
>>> list(implemented2)
[]
>>> implemented3 = factory3.getInterfaces()
>>> list(implemented3)
[<InterfaceClass __builtin__.IFunction>]

The Component Architecture Factory API

>>> import zope.component
>>> factory = Factory(Klass, 'Klass', 'Klassier')
>>> gsm = zope.component.getGlobalSiteManager()
>>> from zope.component.interfaces import IFactory
>>> gsm.registerUtility(factory, IFactory, 'klass')

Creating an Object

>>> kl = zope.component.createObject('klass', 1, 2, foo=3, bar=4)
>>> isinstance(kl, Klass)
True
>>> kl.args
(1, 2)
>>> kl.kw
{'foo': 3, 'bar': 4}

Accessing Provided Interfaces

>>> implemented = zope.component.getFactoryInterfaces('klass')
>>> implemented.isOrExtends(IKlass)
True
>>> [iface for iface in implemented]
[<InterfaceClass __builtin__.IKlass>]

List of All Factories

>>> [(name, fac.__class__) for name, fac in
...  zope.component.getFactoriesFor(IKlass)]
[(u'klass', <class 'zope.component.factory.Factory'>)]

Component-Management objects

Component-management objects provide a higher-level component-management API over the basic adapter-registration API provided by the zope.interface package. In particular, it provides:

  • utilities
  • support for computing adapters, rather than just looking up adapter factories.
  • management of registration comments

The zope.component.registry.Components class provides an implementation of zope.component.interfaces.IComponents that provides these features.

>>> from zope.component import registry
>>> from zope.component import tests
>>> components = registry.Components('comps')

As components are registered, events are generated. Let's register an event subscriber, so we can see the events generated:

>>> import zope.event
>>> def logevent(event):
...     print event
>>> zope.event.subscribers.append(logevent)

Utilities

You can register Utilities using registerUtility:

>>> components.registerUtility(tests.U1(1))
Registered event:
UtilityRegistration(<Components comps>, I1, u'', 1, None, u'')

Here we didn't specify an interface or name. An unnamed utility was registered for interface I1, since that is only interface implemented by the U1 class:

>>> components.getUtility(tests.I1)
U1(1)

You can also register a utility using a factory instead of a utility instance:

>>> def factory():
...    return tests.U1(1)
>>> components.registerUtility(factory=factory)
Unregistered event:
UtilityRegistration(<Components comps>, I1, u'', 1, None, u'')
Registered event:
UtilityRegistration(<Components comps>, I1, u'', 1, <function factory at <SOME ADDRESS>>, u'')

If a component implements other than one interface or no interface, then an error will be raised:

>>> components.registerUtility(tests.U12(2))
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: The utility doesn't provide a single interface and
no provided interface was specified.
>>> components.registerUtility(tests.A)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: The utility doesn't provide a single interface and
no provided interface was specified.

We can provide an interface if desired:

>>> components.registerUtility(tests.U12(2), tests.I2)
Registered event:
UtilityRegistration(<Components comps>, I2, u'', 2, None, u'')

and we can specify a name:

>>> components.registerUtility(tests.U12(3), tests.I2, u'three')
Registered event:
UtilityRegistration(<Components comps>, I2, u'three', 3, None, u'')
>>> components.getUtility(tests.I2)
U12(2)
>>> components.getUtility(tests.I2, 'three')
U12(3)

If you try to get a utility that doesn't exist, you'll get a component lookup error:

>>> components.getUtility(tests.I3)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ComponentLookupError:
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I3>, u'')

Unless you use queryUtility:

>>> components.queryUtility(tests.I3)
>>> components.queryUtility(tests.I3, default=42)
42

You can get information about registered utilities with the registeredUtilities method:

>>> for registration in sorted(components.registeredUtilities()):
...     print registration.provided, registration.name
...     print registration.component, registration.info
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I1>
U1(1)
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I2>
U12(2)
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I2> three
U12(3)

Duplicate registrations replace existing ones:

>>> components.registerUtility(tests.U1(4), info=u'use 4 now')
Unregistered event:
UtilityRegistration(<Components comps>, I1, u'', 1, <function factory at <SOME ADDRESS>>, u'')
Registered event:
UtilityRegistration(<Components comps>, I1, u'', 4, None, u'use 4 now')
>>> components.getUtility(tests.I1)
U1(4)
>>> for registration in sorted(components.registeredUtilities()):
...     print registration.provided, registration.name
...     print registration.component, registration.info
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I1>
U1(4) use 4 now
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I2>
U12(2)
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I2> three
U12(3)

As shown in the this example, you can provide an "info" argumemnt when registering utilities. This provides extra documentation about the registration itself that is shown when listing registrations.

You can also unregister utilities:

>>> components.unregisterUtility(provided=tests.I1)
Unregistered event:
UtilityRegistration(<Components comps>, I1, u'', 4, None, u'use 4 now')
True

A boolean is returned indicating whether anything changed:

>>> components.queryUtility(tests.I1)
>>> for registration in sorted(components.registeredUtilities()):
...     print registration.provided, registration.name
...     print registration.component, registration.info
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I2>
U12(2)
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I2> three
U12(3)

When you unregister, you can specify a component. If the component doesn't match the one registered, then nothing happens:

>>> u5 = tests.U1(5)
>>> components.registerUtility(u5)
Registered event:
UtilityRegistration(<Components comps>, I1, u'', 5, None, u'')
>>> components.unregisterUtility(tests.U1(6))
False
>>> components.queryUtility(tests.I1)
U1(5)
>>> components.unregisterUtility(u5)
Unregistered event:
UtilityRegistration(<Components comps>, I1, u'', 5, None, u'')
True
>>> components.queryUtility(tests.I1)

You can get the name and utility for all of the utilities that provide an interface using getUtilitiesFor:

>>> sorted(components.getUtilitiesFor(tests.I2))
[(u'', U12(2)), (u'three', U12(3))]

getAllUtilitiesRegisteredFor is similar to getUtilitiesFor except that it includes utilities that are overridden. For example, we'll register a utility that for an extending interface of I2:

>>> util = tests.U('ext')
>>> components.registerUtility(util, tests.I2e)
Registered event:
UtilityRegistration(<Components comps>, I2e, u'', ext, None, u'')

We don't get the new utility for getUtilitiesFor:

>>> sorted(components.getUtilitiesFor(tests.I2))
[(u'', U12(2)), (u'three', U12(3))]

but we do get it from getAllUtilitiesRegisteredFor:

>>> sorted(map(str, components.getAllUtilitiesRegisteredFor(tests.I2)))
['U(ext)', 'U12(2)', 'U12(3)']

Removing a utility also makes it disappear from getUtilitiesFor:

>>> components.unregisterUtility(util, tests.I2e)
Unregistered event:
UtilityRegistration(<Components comps>, I2e, u'', ext, None, u'')
True
>>> list(components.getAllUtilitiesRegisteredFor(tests.I2e))
[]

Adapters

You can register adapters with registerAdapter:

>>> components.registerAdapter(tests.A12_1)
Registered event:
AdapterRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1, I2], IA1, u'', A12_1, u'')

Here, we didn't specify required interfaces, a provided interface, or a name. The required interfaces were determined from the factory s __component_adapts__ attribute and the provided interface was determined by introspecting what the factory implements.

>>> components.getMultiAdapter((tests.U1(6), tests.U12(7)), tests.IA1)
A12_1(U1(6), U12(7))

If a factory implements more than one interface, an exception will be raised:

>>> components.registerAdapter(tests.A1_12)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: The adapter factory doesn't implement a single
interface and no provided interface was specified.

Unless the provided interface is specified:

>>> components.registerAdapter(tests.A1_12, provided=tests.IA2)
Registered event:
AdapterRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1], IA2, u'', A1_12, u'')

If a factory doesn't declare an implemented interface, an exception will be raised:

>>> components.registerAdapter(tests.A12_)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: The adapter factory doesn't implement a single
interface and no provided interface was specified.

Unless the provided interface is specified:

>>> components.registerAdapter(tests.A12_, provided=tests.IA2)
Registered event:
AdapterRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1, I2], IA2, u'', A12_, u'')

The required interface needs to be specified in the registration if the factory doesn't have a __component_adapts__ attribute:

>>> components.registerAdapter(tests.A_2)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: The adapter factory doesn't have a __component_adapts__
attribute and no required specifications were specified

Unless the required specifications specified:

>>> components.registerAdapter(tests.A_2, required=[tests.I3])
Registered event:
AdapterRegistration(<Components comps>, [I3], IA2, u'', A_2, u'')

Classes can be specified in place of specifications, in which case the implementedBy specification for the class is used:

>>> components.registerAdapter(tests.A_3, required=[tests.U],
...                            info="Really class specific")
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Registered event:
AdapterRegistration(<Components comps>, [zope.component.tests.U], IA3, u'',
                    A_3, 'Really class specific')

We can see the adapters that have been registered using the registeredAdapters method:

>>> for registration in sorted(components.registeredAdapters()):
...     print registration.required
...     print registration.provided, registration.name
...     print registration.factory, registration.info
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I1>,
 <InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I2>)
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.IA1>
zope.component.tests.A12_1
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I1>,
 <InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I2>)
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.IA2>
zope.component.tests.A12_
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I1>,)
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.IA2>
zope.component.tests.A1_12
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I3>,)
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.IA2>
zope.component.tests.A_2
(<implementedBy zope.component.tests.U>,)
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.IA3>
zope.component.tests.A_3 Really class specific

As with utilities, we can provide registration information when registering adapters.

If you try to fetch an adapter that isn't registered, you'll get a component-lookup error:

>>> components.getMultiAdapter((tests.U(8), ), tests.IA1)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ComponentLookupError: ((U(8),),
                      <InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.IA1>, u'')

unless you use queryAdapter:

>>> components.queryMultiAdapter((tests.U(8), ), tests.IA1)
>>> components.queryMultiAdapter((tests.U(8), ), tests.IA1, default=42)
42

When looking up an adapter for a single object, you can use the slightly simpler getAdapter and queryAdapter calls:

>>> components.getAdapter(tests.U1(9), tests.IA2)
A1_12(U1(9))
>>> components.queryAdapter(tests.U1(9), tests.IA2)
A1_12(U1(9))
>>> components.getAdapter(tests.U(8), tests.IA1)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ComponentLookupError: (U(8),
                       <InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.IA1>, u'')
>>> components.queryAdapter(tests.U(8), tests.IA2)
>>> components.queryAdapter(tests.U(8), tests.IA2, default=42)
42

You can unregister an adapter. If a factory is provided and if the rewuired and provided interfaces, can be infered, then they need not be provided:

>>> components.unregisterAdapter(tests.A12_1)
Unregistered event:
AdapterRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1, I2], IA1, u'', A12_1, u'')
True
>>> for registration in sorted(components.registeredAdapters()):
...     print registration.required
...     print registration.provided, registration.name
...     print registration.factory, registration.info
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I1>,
 <InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I2>)
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.IA2>
zope.component.tests.A12_
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I1>,)
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.IA2>
zope.component.tests.A1_12
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I3>,)
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.IA2>
zope.component.tests.A_2
(<implementedBy zope.component.tests.U>,)
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.IA3>
zope.component.tests.A_3 Really class specific

A boolean is returned indicating whether a change was made.

If a factory implements more than one interface, an exception will be raised:

>>> components.unregisterAdapter(tests.A1_12)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: The adapter factory doesn't implement a single
interface and no provided interface was specified.

Unless the provided interface is specified:

>>> components.unregisterAdapter(tests.A1_12, provided=tests.IA2)
Unregistered event:
AdapterRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1], IA2, u'', A1_12, u'')
True

If a factory doesn't declare an implemented interface, an exception will be raised:

>>> components.unregisterAdapter(tests.A12_)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: The adapter factory doesn't implement a single
interface and no provided interface was specified.

Unless the provided interface is specified:

>>> components.unregisterAdapter(tests.A12_, provided=tests.IA2)
Unregistered event:
AdapterRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1, I2], IA2, u'', A12_, u'')
True

The required interface needs to be specified if the factory doesn't have a __component_adapts__ attribute:

>>> components.unregisterAdapter(tests.A_2)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: The adapter factory doesn't have a __component_adapts__
attribute and no required specifications were specified
>>> components.unregisterAdapter(tests.A_2, required=[tests.I3])
Unregistered event:
AdapterRegistration(<Components comps>, [I3], IA2, u'', A_2, u'')
True
>>> for registration in sorted(components.registeredAdapters()):
...     print registration.required
...     print registration.provided, registration.name
...     print registration.factory, registration.info
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
(<implementedBy zope.component.tests.U>,)
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.IA3>
zope.component.tests.A_3 Really class specific

If a factory is unregistered that is not registered, False is returned:

>>> components.unregisterAdapter(tests.A_2, required=[tests.I3])
False
>>> components.unregisterAdapter(tests.A12_1, required=[tests.U])
False

The factory can be omitted, to unregister any factory that matches specified required and provided interfaces:

>>> components.unregisterAdapter(required=[tests.U], provided=tests.IA3)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Unregistered event:
AdapterRegistration(<Components comps>, [zope.component.tests.U],
                    IA3, u'', A_3, 'Really class specific')
True
>>> for registration in sorted(components.registeredAdapters()):
...     print registration

Adapters can be named:

>>> components.registerAdapter(tests.A1_12, provided=tests.IA2,
...                            name=u'test')
Registered event:
AdapterRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1], IA2, u'test', A1_12, u'')
>>> components.queryMultiAdapter((tests.U1(9), ), tests.IA2)
>>> components.queryMultiAdapter((tests.U1(9), ), tests.IA2, name=u'test')
A1_12(U1(9))
>>> components.queryAdapter(tests.U1(9), tests.IA2)
>>> components.queryAdapter(tests.U1(9), tests.IA2, name=u'test')
A1_12(U1(9))
>>> components.getAdapter(tests.U1(9), tests.IA2, name=u'test')
A1_12(U1(9))

It is possible to look up all of the adapters that provide an interface:

>>> components.registerAdapter(tests.A1_23, provided=tests.IA2,
...                            name=u'test 2')
Registered event:
AdapterRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1], IA2, u'test 2', A1_23, u'')
>>> components.registerAdapter(tests.A1_12, provided=tests.IA2)
Registered event:
AdapterRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1], IA2, u'', A1_12, u'')
>>> for name, adapter in sorted(components.getAdapters((tests.U1(9), ),
...                                                    tests.IA2)):
...     print name, adapter
 A1_12(U1(9))
test A1_12(U1(9))
test 2 A1_23(U1(9))

getAdapters is most commonly used as the basis of menu systems.

If an adapter factory returns None, it is equivalent to there being no factory:

>>> components.registerAdapter(tests.noop,
...                            required=[tests.IA1], provided=tests.IA2,
...                            name=u'test noop')
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Registered event:
AdapterRegistration(<Components comps>, [IA1], IA2, u'test noop',
                    noop, u'')
>>> components.queryAdapter(tests.U1(9), tests.IA2, name=u'test noop')
>>> components.registerAdapter(tests.A1_12, provided=tests.IA2)
Registered event:
AdapterRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1], IA2, u'', A1_12, u'')
>>> for name, adapter in sorted(components.getAdapters((tests.U1(9), ),
...                                                    tests.IA2)):
...     print name, adapter
 A1_12(U1(9))
test A1_12(U1(9))
test 2 A1_23(U1(9))
>>> components.unregisterAdapter(tests.A1_12, provided=tests.IA2,
...                              name=u'test')
Unregistered event:
AdapterRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1], IA2, u'test', A1_12, u'')
True
>>> components.unregisterAdapter(tests.A1_12, provided=tests.IA2)
Unregistered event:
AdapterRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1], IA2, u'', A1_12, u'')
True
>>> for registration in sorted(components.registeredAdapters()):
...     print registration.required
...     print registration.provided, registration.name
...     print registration.factory, registration.info
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I1>,)
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.IA2> test 2
zope.component.tests.A1_23
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.IA1>,)
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.IA2> test noop
<function noop at 0xb79a1064>

Subscribers

Subscribers provide a way to get multiple adapters of a given type. In this regard, subscribers are like named adapters, except that there isn't any concept of the most specific adapter for a given name.

Subscribers are registered by calling registerSubscriptionAdapter:

>>> components.registerSubscriptionAdapter(tests.A1_2)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Registered event:
SubscriptionRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1], IA2, u'', A1_2, u'')
>>> components.registerSubscriptionAdapter(
...     tests.A1_12, provided=tests.IA2)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Registered event:
SubscriptionRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1], IA2, u'', A1_12, u'')
>>> components.registerSubscriptionAdapter(
...     tests.A, [tests.I1], tests.IA2,
...     info='a sample comment')
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Registered event:
SubscriptionRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1], IA2, u'',
                         A, 'a sample comment')

The same rules, with regard to when required and provided interfaces have to be specified apply as with adapters:

>>> components.registerSubscriptionAdapter(tests.A1_12)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: The adapter factory doesn't implement a single
interface and no provided interface was specified.
>>> components.registerSubscriptionAdapter(tests.A)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: The adapter factory doesn't implement a single interface and
 no provided interface was specified.
>>> components.registerSubscriptionAdapter(tests.A, required=[tests.IA1])
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: The adapter factory doesn't implement a single interface
and no provided interface was specified.

Note that we provided the info argument as a keyword argument above. That's because there is a name argument that's reserved for future use. We can give a name, as long as it is an empty string:

>>> components.registerSubscriptionAdapter(
...     tests.A, [tests.I1], tests.IA2, u'', 'a sample comment')
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Registered event:
SubscriptionRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1], IA2, u'',
                         A, 'a sample comment')
>>> components.registerSubscriptionAdapter(
...     tests.A, [tests.I1], tests.IA2, u'oops', 'a sample comment')
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: Named subscribers are not yet supported

Subscribers are looked up using the subscribers method:

>>> for s in components.subscribers((tests.U1(1), ), tests.IA2):
...    print s
A1_2(U1(1))
A1_12(U1(1))
A(U1(1),)
A(U1(1),)

Note that, because we created multiple subscriptions for A, we got multiple subscriber instances.

As with normal adapters, if a factory returns None, the result is skipped:

>>> components.registerSubscriptionAdapter(
...     tests.noop, [tests.I1], tests.IA2)
Registered event:
SubscriptionRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1], IA2, u'', noop, u'')
>>> for s in components.subscribers((tests.U1(1), ), tests.IA2):
...    print s
A1_2(U1(1))
A1_12(U1(1))
A(U1(1),)
A(U1(1),)

We can get registration information for subscriptions:

>>> for registration in sorted(
...     components.registeredSubscriptionAdapters()):
...     print registration.required
...     print registration.provided, registration.name
...     print registration.factory, registration.info
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I1>,)
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.IA2>
zope.component.tests.A a sample comment
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I1>,)
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.IA2>
zope.component.tests.A a sample comment
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I1>,)
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.IA2>
zope.component.tests.A1_12
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I1>,)
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.IA2>
zope.component.tests.A1_2
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I1>,)
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.IA2>
<function noop at 0xb796ff7c>

We can also unregister subscriptions in much the same way we can for adapters:

>>> components.unregisterSubscriptionAdapter(tests.A1_2)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Unregistered event:
SubscriptionRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1], IA2, u'', A1_2, '')
True
>>> for s in components.subscribers((tests.U1(1), ), tests.IA2):
...    print s
A1_12(U1(1))
A(U1(1),)
A(U1(1),)
>>> for registration in sorted(
...     components.registeredSubscriptionAdapters()):
...     print registration.required
...     print registration.provided, registration.name
...     print registration.factory, registration.info
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I1>,)
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.IA2>
zope.component.tests.A a sample comment
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I1>,)
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.IA2>
zope.component.tests.A a sample comment
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I1>,)
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.IA2>
zope.component.tests.A1_12
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I1>,)
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.IA2>
<function noop at 0xb796ff7c>
>>> components.unregisterSubscriptionAdapter(
...     tests.A, [tests.I1], tests.IA2)
Unregistered event:
SubscriptionRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1], IA2, u'', A, '')
True
>>> for s in components.subscribers((tests.U1(1), ), tests.IA2):
...    print s
A1_12(U1(1))
>>> for registration in sorted(
...     components.registeredSubscriptionAdapters()):
...     print registration.required
...     print registration.provided, registration.name
...     print registration.factory, registration.info
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I1>,)
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.IA2>
zope.component.tests.A1_12
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I1>,)
<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.IA2>
<function noop at 0xb796ff7c>

Note here that both registrations for A were removed.

If we omit the factory, we must specify the required and provided interfaces:

>>> components.unregisterSubscriptionAdapter(required=[tests.I1])
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: Must specify one of factory and provided
>>> components.unregisterSubscriptionAdapter(provided=tests.IA2)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: Must specify one of factory and required
>>> components.unregisterSubscriptionAdapter(
...     required=[tests.I1], provided=tests.IA2)
Unregistered event:
SubscriptionRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1], IA2, u'', None, '')
True
>>> for s in components.subscribers((tests.U1(1), ), tests.IA2):
...    print s
>>> for registration in sorted(
...     components.registeredSubscriptionAdapters()):
...     print registration.factory

As when registering, an error is raised if the registration information can't be determined from the factory and isn't specified:

>>> components.unregisterSubscriptionAdapter(tests.A1_12)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: The adapter factory doesn't implement a single
interface and no provided interface was specified.
>>> components.unregisterSubscriptionAdapter(tests.A)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: The adapter factory doesn't implement a single interface and
 no provided interface was specified.
>>> components.unregisterSubscriptionAdapter(tests.A, required=[tests.IA1])
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: The adapter factory doesn't implement a single interface
and no provided interface was specified.

If you unregister something that's not registered, nothing will be changed and False will be returned:

>>> components.unregisterSubscriptionAdapter(
...     required=[tests.I1], provided=tests.IA2)
False

Handlers

Handlers are used when you want to perform some function in response to an event. Handlers aren't expected to return anything when called and are not registered to provide any interface.

>>> from zope import component
>>> @component.adapter(tests.I1)
... def handle1(x):
...     print 'handle1', x
>>> components.registerHandler(handle1, info="First handler")
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Registered event:
HandlerRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1], u'',
                    handle1, 'First handler')
>>> components.handle(tests.U1(1))
handle1 U1(1)
>>> @component.adapter(tests.I1, tests.I2)
... def handle12(x, y):
...     print 'handle12', x, y
>>> components.registerHandler(handle12)
Registered event:
HandlerRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1, I2], u'', handle12, u'')
>>> components.handle(tests.U1(1), tests.U12(2))
handle12 U1(1) U12(2)

If a handler doesn't document interfaces it handles, then the required interfaces must be specified:

>>> def handle(*objects):
...     print 'handle', objects
>>> components.registerHandler(handle)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: The adapter factory doesn't have a __component_adapts__
attribute and no required specifications were specified
>>> components.registerHandler(handle, required=[tests.I1],
...                            info="a comment")
Registered event:
HandlerRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1], u'', handle, 'a comment')

Handlers can also be registered for classes:

>>> components.registerHandler(handle, required=[tests.U],
...                            info="handle a class")
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Registered event:
HandlerRegistration(<Components comps>, [zope.component.tests.U], u'',
                    handle, 'handle a class')
>>> components.handle(tests.U1(1))
handle (U1(1),)
handle1 U1(1)
handle (U1(1),)

We can list the handler registrations:

>>> for registration in components.registeredHandlers():
...     print registration.required
...     print registration.handler, registration.info
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I1>,)
<function handle1 at 0xb78f5bfc> First handler
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I1>,
 <InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I2>)
<function handle12 at 0xb78f5c34>
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I1>,)
<function handle at 0xb78f5ca4> a comment
(<implementedBy zope.component.tests.U>,)
<function handle at 0xb78f5ca4> handle a class

and we can unregister handlers:

>>> components.unregisterHandler(required=[tests.U])
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Unregistered event:
HandlerRegistration(<Components comps>, [zope.component.tests.U], u'',
                    None, '')
True
>>> for registration in components.registeredHandlers():
...     print registration.required
...     print registration.handler, registration.info
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I1>,)
<function handle1 at 0xb78f5bfc> First handler
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I1>,
 <InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I2>)
<function handle12 at 0xb78f5c34>
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I1>,)
<function handle at 0xb78f5ca4> a comment
>>> components.unregisterHandler(handle12)
Unregistered event:
HandlerRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1, I2], u'', handle12, '')
True
>>> for registration in components.registeredHandlers():
...     print registration.required
...     print registration.handler, registration.info
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I1>,)
<function handle1 at 0xb78f5bfc> First handler
(<InterfaceClass zope.component.tests.I1>,)
<function handle at 0xb78f5ca4> a comment
>>> components.unregisterHandler(handle12)
False
>>> components.unregisterHandler()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: Must specify one of factory and required
>>> components.registerHandler(handle)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
TypeError: The adapter factory doesn't have a __component_adapts__
attribute and no required specifications were specified

Extending

Component-management objects can extend other component-management objects.

>>> c1 = registry.Components('1')
>>> c1.__bases__
()
>>> c2 = registry.Components('2', (c1, ))
>>> c2.__bases__ == (c1, )
True
>>> c1.registerUtility(tests.U1(1))
Registered event:
UtilityRegistration(<Components 1>, I1, u'', 1, None, u'')
>>> c1.queryUtility(tests.I1)
U1(1)
>>> c2.queryUtility(tests.I1)
U1(1)
>>> c1.registerUtility(tests.U1(2))
Unregistered event:
UtilityRegistration(<Components 1>, I1, u'', 1, None, u'')
Registered event:
UtilityRegistration(<Components 1>, I1, u'', 2, None, u'')
>>> c2.queryUtility(tests.I1)
U1(2)

We can use multiple inheritence:

>>> c3 = registry.Components('3', (c1, ))
>>> c4 = registry.Components('4', (c2, c3))
>>> c4.queryUtility(tests.I1)
U1(2)
>>> c1.registerUtility(tests.U12(1), tests.I2)
Registered event:
UtilityRegistration(<Components 1>, I2, u'', 1, None, u'')
>>> c4.queryUtility(tests.I2)
U12(1)
>>> c3.registerUtility(tests.U12(3), tests.I2)
Registered event:
UtilityRegistration(<Components 3>, I2, u'', 3, None, u'')
>>> c4.queryUtility(tests.I2)
U12(3)
>>> c1.registerHandler(handle1, info="First handler")
Registered event:
HandlerRegistration(<Components 1>, [I1], u'', handle1, 'First handler')
>>> c2.registerHandler(handle, required=[tests.U])
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Registered event:
HandlerRegistration(<Components 2>, [zope.component.tests.U], u'',
                    handle, u'')
>>> @component.adapter(tests.I1)
... def handle3(x):
...     print 'handle3', x
>>> c3.registerHandler(handle3)
Registered event:
HandlerRegistration(<Components 3>, [I1], u'', handle3, u'')
>>> @component.adapter(tests.I1)
... def handle4(x):
...     print 'handle4', x
>>> c4.registerHandler(handle4)
Registered event:
HandlerRegistration(<Components 4>, [I1], u'', handle4, u'')
>>> c4.handle(tests.U1(1))
handle1 U1(1)
handle3 U1(1)
handle (U1(1),)
handle4 U1(1)

Redispatch of registration events

Some handlers are available that, if registered, redispatch registration events to the objects being registered. They depend on being dispatched to by the object-event dispatcher:

>>> from zope import component
>>> import zope.component.event
>>> zope.component.getGlobalSiteManager().registerHandler(
...      zope.component.event.objectEventNotify)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Registered event:
HandlerRegistration(<BaseGlobalComponents base>,
                    [IObjectEvent], u'', objectEventNotify, u'')

To see this, we'll first register a multi-handler to show is when handlers are called on 2 objects:

>>> @zope.component.adapter(None, None)
... def double_handler(o1, o2):
...     print 'Double dispatch:'
...     print ' ', o1
...     print ' ', o2
>>> zope.component.getGlobalSiteManager().registerHandler(double_handler)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Double dispatch:
  HandlerRegistration(<BaseGlobalComponents base>,
                      [Interface, Interface], u'', double_handler, u'')
  Registered event:
  HandlerRegistration(<BaseGlobalComponents base>,
  [Interface, Interface], u'', double_handler, u'')
Registered event:
HandlerRegistration(<BaseGlobalComponents base>,
                    [Interface, Interface], u'', double_handler, u'')

In the example above, the double_handler reported it's own registration. :)

Now we'll register our handlers:

>>> zope.component.getGlobalSiteManager().registerHandler(
...     registry.dispatchUtilityRegistrationEvent)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE +ELLIPSIS
Double dispatch:
...
>>> zope.component.getGlobalSiteManager().registerHandler(
...     registry.dispatchAdapterRegistrationEvent)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE +ELLIPSIS
Double dispatch:
...
>>> zope.component.getGlobalSiteManager().registerHandler(
...     registry.dispatchSubscriptionAdapterRegistrationEvent)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE +ELLIPSIS
Double dispatch:
...
>>> zope.component.getGlobalSiteManager().registerHandler(
...     registry.dispatchHandlerRegistrationEvent)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Double dispatch:
  HandlerRegistration(<BaseGlobalComponents base>,
                      [IHandlerRegistration, IRegistrationEvent], u'',
                      dispatchHandlerRegistrationEvent, u'')
  Registered event:
  HandlerRegistration(<BaseGlobalComponents base>,
                      [IHandlerRegistration, IRegistrationEvent], u'',
                      dispatchHandlerRegistrationEvent, u'')
Double dispatch:
  <function dispatchHandlerRegistrationEvent at 0xb799f72c>
  Registered event:
  HandlerRegistration(<BaseGlobalComponents base>,
                      [IHandlerRegistration, IRegistrationEvent], u'',
                      dispatchHandlerRegistrationEvent, u'')
Registered event:
HandlerRegistration(<BaseGlobalComponents base>,
                    [IHandlerRegistration, IRegistrationEvent], u'',
                    dispatchHandlerRegistrationEvent, u'')

In the last example above, we can see that the registration of dispatchHandlerRegistrationEvent was handled by dispatchHandlerRegistrationEvent and redispatched. This can be seen in the second double-dispatch output, where the first argument is the object being registered, which is dispatchHandlerRegistrationEvent.

If we change some other registrations, we can the double dispatch taking place:

>>> components.registerUtility(u5)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Double dispatch:
  UtilityRegistration(<Components comps>, I1, u'', 5, None, u'')
  Registered event:
  UtilityRegistration(<Components comps>, I1, u'', 5, None, u'')
Double dispatch:
  U1(5)
  Registered event:
  UtilityRegistration(<Components comps>, I1, u'', 5, None, u'')
Registered event:
UtilityRegistration(<Components comps>, I1, u'', 5, None, u'')
>>> components.registerAdapter(tests.A12_1)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Double dispatch:
  AdapterRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1, I2], IA1, u'', A12_1, u'')
  Registered event:
  AdapterRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1, I2], IA1, u'', A12_1, u'')
Double dispatch:
  zope.component.tests.A12_1
  Registered event:
  AdapterRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1, I2], IA1, u'', A12_1, u'')
Registered event:
AdapterRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1, I2], IA1, u'', A12_1, u'')
>>> components.registerSubscriptionAdapter(tests.A1_2)
... # doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Double dispatch:
  SubscriptionRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1], IA2, u'', A1_2, u'')
  Registered event:
  SubscriptionRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1], IA2, u'', A1_2, u'')
Double dispatch:
  zope.component.tests.A1_2
  Registered event:
  SubscriptionRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1], IA2, u'', A1_2, u'')
Registered event:
SubscriptionRegistration(<Components comps>, [I1], IA2, u'', A1_2, u'')

Persistent Component Management

Persistent component management allows persistent management of components. From a usage point of view, there shouldn't be any new behavior beyond what's described in registry.txt.

The Zope 3 Component Architecture (Socket Example)

The component architecture provides an application framework that provides its functionality through loosely-connected components. A component can be any Python object and has a particular purpose associated with it. Thus, in a component-based applications you have many small component in contrast to classical object-oriented development, where you have a few big objects.

Components communicate via specific APIs, which are formally defined by interfaces, which are provided by the zope.interface package. Interfaces describe the methods and properties that a component is expected to provide. They are also used as a primary mean to provide developer-level documentation for the components. For more details about interfaces see zope/interface/README.txt.

The two main types of components are adapters and utilities. They will be discussed in detail later in this document. Both component types are managed by the site manager, with which you can register and access these components. However, most of the site manager's functionality is hidden behind the component architecture's public API, which is documented in IComponentArchitecture.

Adapters

Adapters are a well-established pattern. An adapter uses an object providing one interface to produce an object that provides another interface. Here an example: Imagine that you purchased an electric shaver in the US, and thus you require the US socket type. You are now traveling in Germany, where another socket style is used. You will need a device, an adapter, that converts from the German to the US socket style.

The functionality of adapters is actually natively provided by the zope.interface package and is thus well documented there. The human.txt file provides a gentle introduction to adapters, whereby adapter.txt is aimed at providing a comprehensive insight into adapters, but is too abstract for many as an initial read. Thus, we will only explain adapters in the context of the component architecture's API.

So let's say that we have a German socket

>>> from zope.interface import Interface, implements
>>> class IGermanSocket(Interface):
...     pass
>>> class Socket(object):
...     def __repr__(self):
...         return '<instance of %s>' %self.__class__.__name__
>>> class GermanSocket(Socket):
...     """German wall socket."""
...     implements(IGermanSocket)

and we want to convert it to an US socket

>>> class IUSSocket(Interface):
...     pass

so that our shaver can be used in Germany. So we go to a German electronics store to look for an adapter that we can plug in the wall:

>>> class GermanToUSSocketAdapter(Socket):
...     implements(IUSSocket)
...     __used_for__ = IGermanSocket
...
...     def __init__(self, socket):
...         self.context = socket

Note that I could have called the passed in socket any way I like, but context is the standard name accepted.

Single Adapters

Before we can use the adapter, we have to buy it and make it part of our inventory. In the component architecture we do this by registering the adapter with the framework, more specifically with the global site manager:

>>> import zope.component
>>> gsm = zope.component.getGlobalSiteManager()
>>> gsm.registerAdapter(GermanToUSSocketAdapter, (IGermanSocket,), IUSSocket)

zope.component is the component architecture API that is being presented by this file. You registered an adapter from IGermanSocket to IUSSocket having no name (thus the empty string).

Anyways, you finally get back to your hotel room and shave, since you have not been able to shave in the plane. In the bathroom you discover a socket:

>>> bathroomDE = GermanSocket()
>>> IGermanSocket.providedBy(bathroomDE)
True

You now insert the adapter in the German socket

>>> bathroomUS = zope.component.getAdapter(bathroomDE, IUSSocket, '')

so that the socket now provides the US version:

>>> IUSSocket.providedBy(bathroomUS)
True

Now you can insert your shaver and get on with your day.

After a week you travel for a couple of days to the Prague and you notice that the Czech have yet another socket type:

>>> class ICzechSocket(Interface):
...     pass
>>> class CzechSocket(Socket):
...     implements(ICzechSocket)
>>> czech = CzechSocket()

You try to find an adapter for your shaver in your bag, but you fail, since you do not have one:

>>> zope.component.getAdapter(czech, IUSSocket, '') \
... #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ComponentLookupError: (<instance of CzechSocket>,
                       <InterfaceClass __builtin__.IUSSocket>,
                       '')

or the more graceful way:

>>> marker = object()
>>> socket = zope.component.queryAdapter(czech, IUSSocket, '', marker)
>>> socket is marker
True

In the component architecture API any get* method will fail with a specific exception, if a query failed, whereby methods starting with query* will always return a default value after a failure.

Named Adapters

You are finally back in Germany. You also brought your DVD player and a couple DVDs with you, which you would like to watch. Your shaver was able to convert automatically from 110 volts to 240 volts, but your DVD player cannot. So you have to buy another adapter that also handles converting the voltage and the frequency of the AC current:

>>> class GermanToUSSocketAdapterAndTransformer(object):
...     implements(IUSSocket)
...     __used_for__ = IGermanSocket
...
...     def __init__(self, socket):
...         self.context = socket

Now, we need a way to keep the two adapters apart. Thus we register them with a name:

>>> gsm.registerAdapter(GermanToUSSocketAdapter,
...                     (IGermanSocket,), IUSSocket, 'shaver',)
>>> gsm.registerAdapter(GermanToUSSocketAdapterAndTransformer,
...                     (IGermanSocket,), IUSSocket, 'dvd')

Now we simply look up the adapters using their labels (called name):

>>> socket = zope.component.getAdapter(bathroomDE, IUSSocket, 'shaver')
>>> socket.__class__ is GermanToUSSocketAdapter
True
>>> socket = zope.component.getAdapter(bathroomDE, IUSSocket, 'dvd')
>>> socket.__class__ is GermanToUSSocketAdapterAndTransformer
True

Clearly, we do not have an adapter for the MP3 player

>>> zope.component.getAdapter(bathroomDE, IUSSocket, 'mp3') \
... #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ComponentLookupError: (<instance of GermanSocket>,
                       <InterfaceClass __builtin__.IUSSocket>,
                       'mp3')

but you could use the 'dvd' adapter in this case of course. ;)

Sometimes you want to know all adapters that are available. Let's say you want to know about all the adapters that convert a German to a US socket type:

>>> sockets = list(zope.component.getAdapters((bathroomDE,), IUSSocket))
>>> len(sockets)
3
>>> names = [name for name, socket in sockets]
>>> names.sort()
>>> names
[u'', u'dvd', u'shaver']

zope.component.getAdapters() returns a list of tuples. The first entry of the tuple is the name of the adapter and the second is the adapter itself.

Multi-Adapters

After watching all the DVDs you brought at least twice, you get tired of them and you want to listen to some music using your MP3 player. But darn, the MP3 player plug has a ground pin and all the adapters you have do not support that:

>>> class IUSGroundedSocket(IUSSocket):
...     pass

So you go out another time to buy an adapter. This time, however, you do not buy yet another adapter, but a piece that provides the grounding plug:

>>> class IGrounder(Interface):
...     pass
>>> class Grounder(object):
...     implements(IGrounder)
...     def __repr__(self):
...         return '<instance of Grounder>'

Then together they will provided a grounded us socket:

>>> class GroundedGermanToUSSocketAdapter(object):
...     implements(IUSGroundedSocket)
...     __used_for__ = (IGermanSocket, IGrounder)
...     def __init__(self, socket, grounder):
...         self.socket, self.grounder = socket, grounder

You now register the combination, so that you know you can create a IUSGroundedSocket:

>>> gsm.registerAdapter(GroundedGermanToUSSocketAdapter,
...                 (IGermanSocket, IGrounder), IUSGroundedSocket, 'mp3')

Given the grounder

>>> grounder = Grounder()

and a German socket

>>> livingroom = GermanSocket()

we can now get a grounded US socket:

>>> socket = zope.component.getMultiAdapter((livingroom, grounder),
...                                         IUSGroundedSocket, 'mp3')
>>> socket.__class__ is GroundedGermanToUSSocketAdapter
True
>>> socket.socket is livingroom
True
>>> socket.grounder is grounder
True

Of course, you do not have a 'dvd' grounded US socket available:

>>> zope.component.getMultiAdapter((livingroom, grounder),
...                                IUSGroundedSocket, 'dvd') \
... #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ComponentLookupError: ((<instance of GermanSocket>,
                        <instance of Grounder>),
                       <InterfaceClass __builtin__.IUSGroundedSocket>,
                       'dvd')
>>> socket = zope.component.queryMultiAdapter(
...     (livingroom, grounder), IUSGroundedSocket, 'dvd', marker)
>>> socket is marker
True

Again, you might want to read adapter.txt in zope.interface for a more comprehensive coverage of multi-adapters.

Subscribers

While subscribers are directly supported by the adapter registry and are adapters for all theoretical purposes, practically it might be better to think of them as separate components. Subscribers are particularly useful for events.

Let's say one of our adapters overheated and caused a small fire:

>>> class IFire(Interface):
...     pass
>>> class Fire(object):
...     implements(IFire)
>>> fire = Fire()

We want to use all available objects to put out the fire:

>>> class IFireExtinguisher(Interface):
...     def extinguish():
...         pass
>>> class FireExtinguisher(object):
...     def __init__(self, fire):
...         pass
...     def extinguish(self):
...         "Place extinguish code here."
...         print 'Used ' + self.__class__.__name__ + '.'

Here some specific methods to put out the fire:

>>> class PowderExtinguisher(FireExtinguisher):
...     pass
>>> gsm.registerSubscriptionAdapter(PowderExtinguisher,
...                                 (IFire,), IFireExtinguisher)
>>> class Blanket(FireExtinguisher):
...     pass
>>> gsm.registerSubscriptionAdapter(Blanket, (IFire,), IFireExtinguisher)
>>> class SprinklerSystem(FireExtinguisher):
...     pass
>>> gsm.registerSubscriptionAdapter(SprinklerSystem,
...                                 (IFire,), IFireExtinguisher)

Now let use all these things to put out the fire:

>>> extinguishers = zope.component.subscribers((fire,), IFireExtinguisher)
>>> extinguishers.sort()
>>> for extinguisher in extinguishers:
...     extinguisher.extinguish()
Used Blanket.
Used PowderExtinguisher.
Used SprinklerSystem.

If no subscribers are found for a particular object, then an empty list is returned:

>>> zope.component.subscribers((object(),), IFireExtinguisher)
[]

Utilities

Utilities are the second type of component, the component architecture implements. Utilities are simply components that provide an interface. When you register an utility, you always register an instance (in contrast to a factory for adapters) since the initialization and setup process of a utility might be complex and is not well defined. In some ways a utility is much more fundamental than an adapter, because an adapter cannot be used without another component, but a utility is always self-contained. I like to think of utilities as the foundation of your application and adapters as components extending beyond this foundation.

Back to our story...

After your vacation is over you fly back home to Tampa, Florida. But it is August now, the middle of the Hurricane season. And, believe it or not, you are worried that you will not be able to shave when the power goes out for several days. (You just hate wet shavers.)

So you decide to go to your favorite hardware store and by a Diesel-powered electric generator. The generator provides of course a US-style socket:

>>> class Generator(object):
...     implements(IUSSocket)
...     def __repr__(self):
...         return '<instance of Generator>'
>>> generator = Generator()

Like for adapters, we now have to add the newly-acquired generator to our inventory by registering it as a utility:

>>> gsm.registerUtility(generator, IUSSocket)

We can now get the utility using

>>> utility = zope.component.getUtility(IUSSocket)
>>> utility is generator
True

As you can see, it is very simple to register and retrieve utilities. If a utility does not exist for a particular interface, such as the German socket, then the lookup fails

>>> zope.component.getUtility(IGermanSocket)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ComponentLookupError: (<InterfaceClass __builtin__.IGermanSocket>, '')

or more gracefully when specifying a default value:

>>> default = object()
>>> utility = zope.component.queryUtility(IGermanSocket, default=default)
>>> utility is default
True

Note: The only difference between getUtility() and queryUtility() is the fact that you can specify a default value for the latter function, so that it will never cause a ComponentLookupError.

Named Utilities

It is often desirable to have several utilities providing the same interface per site. This way you can implement any sort of registry using utilities. For this reason, utilities -- like adapters -- can be named.

In the context of our story, we might want to do the following: You really do not trust gas stations either. What if the roads are blocked after a hurricane and the gas stations run out of oil. So you look for another renewable power source. Then you think about solar panels! After a storm there is usually very nice weather, so why not? Via the Web you order a set of 110V/120W solar panels that provide a regular US-style socket as output:

>>> class SolarPanel(object):
...     implements(IUSSocket)
...     def __repr__(self):
...         return '<instance of Solar Panel>'
>>> panel = SolarPanel()

Once it arrives, we add it to our inventory:

>>> gsm.registerUtility(panel, IUSSocket, 'Solar Panel')

You can now access the solar panel using

>>> utility = zope.component.getUtility(IUSSocket, 'Solar Panel')
>>> utility is panel
True

Of course, if a utility is not available, then the lookup will simply fail

>>> zope.component.getUtility(IUSSocket, 'Wind Mill')
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ComponentLookupError: (<InterfaceClass __builtin__.IUSSocket>, 'Wind Mill')

or more gracefully when specifying a default value:

>>> default = object()
>>> utility = zope.component.queryUtility(IUSSocket, 'Wind Mill',
...                                       default=default)
>>> utility is default
True

Now you want to look at all the utilities you have for a particular kind. The following API function will return a list of name/utility pairs:

>>> utils = list(zope.component.getUtilitiesFor(IUSSocket))
>>> utils.sort()
>>> utils #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
[(u'', <instance of Generator>),
 (u'Solar Panel', <instance of Solar Panel>)]

Another method of looking up all utilities is by using getAllUtilitiesRegisteredFor(iface). This function will return an iterable of utilities (without names); however, it will also return overridden utilities. If you are not using multiple site managers, you will not actually need this method.

>>> utils = list(zope.component.getAllUtilitiesRegisteredFor(IUSSocket))
>>> utils.sort()
>>> utils
[<instance of Generator>, <instance of Solar Panel>]

Factories

A factory is a special kind of utility that exists to create other components. A factory is always identified by a name. It also provides a title and description and is able to tell the developer what interfaces the created object will provide. The advantage of using a factory to create an object instead of directly instantiating a class or executing any other callable is that we can refer to the factory by name. As long as the name stays fixed, the implementation of the callable can be renamed or moved without a breakage in code.

Let's say that our solar panel comes in parts and they have to be assembled. This assembly would be done by a factory, so let's create one for the solar panel. To do this, we can use a standard implementation of the IFactory interface:

>>> from zope.component.factory import Factory
>>> factory = Factory(SolarPanel,
...                   'Solar Panel',
...                   'This factory creates a solar panel.')

Optionally, I could have also specified the interfaces that the created object will provide, but the factory class is smart enough to determine the implemented interface from the class. We now register the factory:

>>> from zope.component.interfaces import IFactory
>>> gsm.registerUtility(factory, IFactory, 'SolarPanel')

We can now get a list of interfaces the produced object will provide:

>>> ifaces = zope.component.getFactoryInterfaces('SolarPanel')
>>> IUSSocket in ifaces
True

By the way, this is equivalent to

>>> ifaces2 = factory.getInterfaces()
>>> ifaces is ifaces2
True

Of course you can also just create an object:

>>> panel = zope.component.createObject('SolarPanel')
>>> panel.__class__ is SolarPanel
True

Note: Ignore the first argument (None) for now; it is the context of the utility lookup, which is usually an optional argument, but cannot be in this case, since all other arguments beside the name are passed in as arguments to the specified callable.

Once you register several factories

>>> gsm.registerUtility(Factory(Generator), IFactory, 'Generator')

you can also determine, which available factories will create objects providing a certain interface:

>>> factories = zope.component.getFactoriesFor(IUSSocket)
>>> factories = [(name, factory.__class__) for name, factory in factories]
>>> factories.sort()
>>> factories #doctest: +NORMALIZE_WHITESPACE
[(u'Generator', <class 'zope.component.factory.Factory'>),
 (u'SolarPanel', <class 'zope.component.factory.Factory'>)]

Site Managers

Why do we need site managers? Why is the component architecture API not sufficient? Some applications, including Zope 3, have a concept of locations. It is often desirable to have different configurations for these location; this can be done by overwriting existing or adding new component registrations. Site managers in locations below the root location, should be able to delegate requests to their parent locations. The root site manager is commonly known as global site manager, since it is always available. You can always get the global site manager using the API:

>>> gsm = zope.component.getGlobalSiteManager()
>>> from zope.component import globalSiteManager
>>> gsm is globalSiteManager
True
>>> from zope.component.interfaces import IComponentLookup
>>> IComponentLookup.providedBy(gsm)
True
>>> from zope.component.interfaces import IComponents
>>> IComponents.providedBy(gsm)
True

You can also lookup at site manager in a given context. The only requirement is that the context can be adapted to a site manager. So let's create a special site manager:

>>> from zope.component.globalregistry import BaseGlobalComponents
>>> sm = BaseGlobalComponents()

Now we create a context that adapts to the site manager via the __conform__ method as specified in PEP 246.

>>> class Context(object):
...     def __init__(self, sm):
...         self.sm = sm
...     def __conform__(self, interface):
...         if interface.isOrExtends(IComponentLookup):
...             return self.sm

We now instantiate the Context with our special site manager:

>>> context = Context(sm)
>>> context.sm is sm
True

We can now ask for the site manager of this context:

>>> lsm = zope.component.getSiteManager(context)
>>> lsm is sm
True

The site manager instance lsm is formally known as a local site manager of context.

CHANGES

3.10.0 (2010-09-25)

  • Got rid of the docs extra and the sphinxdoc recipe.
  • Created a "security" extra to move security-related dependencies out of the "test" extra.
  • Use the new zope.testrunner package for tests.
  • Added a basic test for the configure.zcml file provided.

3.9.5 (2010-07-09)

  • Fix test requirements specification.

3.9.4 (2010-04-30)

  • Prefer the standard libraries doctest module to the one from zope.testing.

3.9.3 (2010-03-08)

  • The ZCML directives provided by zope.component now register the components in the registry returned by getSiteManager instead of the global registry. This allows the hooking of the getSiteManager method before the load of a ZCML file to register the components in a custom registry.

3.9.2 (2010-01-22)

  • Fixed a bug introduced by recent refactoring, where passing CheckerPublic to securityAdapterFactory wrongly wrapped the factory into a LocatingUntrustedAdapterFactory.

3.9.1 (2010-01-21)

  • The tested testrunner somehow gets influenced by options of the outer testrunner, such a the -v option. We modified the tests so that it avoids this.

3.9.0 (2010-01-21)

  • Add testlayer support. It is now possible to load a ZCML file within tests more easily. See zope.component.testlayer.py and zope.component.testlayer.txt.

3.8.0 (2009-11-16)

  • Removed the dependencies on zope.proxy and zope.security from the zcml extra: zope.component does not hard depend on them anymore; the support for security proxied components ZCML registrations is enabled only if zope.security and zope.proxy are available.
  • Moved the IPossibleSite and ISite interfaces here from zope.location as they are dealing with zope.component's concept of a site, but not with location.
  • Moved the zope.site.hooks functionality to zope.component.hooks as it isn't actually dealing with zope.site's concept of a site.

3.7.1 (2009-07-24)

  • Fixed a problem, where queryNextUtility could fail if the context could not be adapted to a IComponentLookup.

  • Fixed 2 related bugs:

    When a utility is registered and there was previously a utility registered for the same interface and name, then the old utility is unregistered. The 2 bugs related to this:

    • There was no Unregistered for the implicit unregistration. Now there is.
    • The old utility was still held and returned by getAllUtilitiesRegisteredFor. In other words, it was still considered registered, eeven though it wasn't. A particularly negative consequence of this is that the utility is held in memory or in the database even though it isn't used.

3.7.0 (2009-05-21)

  • The HookableTests were not run by the testrunner.
  • Add in zope:view and zope:resource implementations into zope.component.zcml (dependency loaded with zope.component [zcml]).

3.6.0 (2009-03-12)

  • IMPORTANT: the interfaces that were defined in the zope.component.bbb.interfaces and deprecated for years are now (re)moved. However, some packages, including part of zope framework were still using those interfaces. They will be adapted for this change. If you were using some of those interfaces, you need to adapt your code as well:

    • The IView and IDefaultViewName were moved to zope.publisher.interfaces.

    • The IResource was moved to zope.app.publisher.interfaces.

    • IContextDependent, IPresentation, IPresentationRequest, IResourceFactory, IViewFactory were removed completely.

      If you used IViewFactory in context of zope.app.form, there's now IWidgetFactory in the zope.app.form.interfaces instead.

  • Add getNextUtility/queryNextUtility functions that used to be in zope.site earlier (and in zope.app.component even more earlier).

  • Added a pure-Python 'hookable' implementation, for use when 'zope.hookable' is not present.

  • Removed use of 'zope.deferredimport' by breaking import cycles.

  • Cleanup package documentation and changelog a bit. Add sphinx-based documentation building command to the buildout.

  • Remove deprecated code.

  • Change package's mailing list address to zope-dev at zope.org, because zope3-dev at zope.org is now retired.

3.5.1 (2008-07-25)

3.5.0 (2008-07-25)

  • Support registration of utilities via factories through the component registry and return factory information in the registration information. This fixes https://bugs.launchpad.net/zope3/+bug/240631
  • Optimized un/registerUtility via storing an optimized data structure for efficient retrieval of already registered utilities. This avoids looping over all utilities when registering a new one.

3.4.0 (2007-09-29)

No further changes since 3.4.0a1.

3.4.0a1 (2007-04-22)

Corresponds to zope.component from Zope 3.4.0a1.

3.2.0.2 (2006-04-15)

  • Fix packaging bug: 'package_dir' must be a relative path.

3.2.0.1 (2006-04-14)

  • Packaging change: suppress inclusion of 'setup.cfg' in 'sdist' builds.

3.2.0 (2006-01-05)

Corresponds to the verison of the zope.component package shipped as part of the Zope 3.2.0 release.

  • Deprecated services and related APIs. The adapter and utility registries are now available directly via the site manager's 'adapters' and 'utilities' attributes, respectively. Services are accessible, but deprecated, and will be removed in Zope 3.3.
  • Deprectaed all presentation-related APIs, including all view-related API functions. Use the adapter API functions instead. See http://dev.zope.org/Zope3/ImplementViewsAsAdapters`
  • Deprecated 'contextdependent' package: site managers are now looked up via a thread global, set during URL traversal. The 'context' argument is now always optional, and should no longer be passed.

3.0.0 (2004-11-07)

Corresponds to the verison of the zope.component package shipped as part of the Zope X3.0.0 release.

 
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